The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes (1907–21).
VOLUME XVI. Early National Literature, Part II; Later National Literature, Part I.

X. Thoreau


For a virtually complete bibliography of Thoreau, see A Bibliography of Henry David Thoreau, compiled by Francis H. Allen, Boston and New York, 1908. Two briefer bibliographies are by S. A. Jones, published by the Rowfant Club of Cleveland, 1894, and by John P. Anderson, appended to the Life of Thoreau in the Great Writers series, London, 1896.


Riverside Edition. II vols. Boston, 1894 [1893]. (Also a large paper edition.) Manuscript Edition, with manuscript insertions. 20 vols. (Vols. VII–XX contain the Journal, ed. Torrey, Bradford.) Boston, 1906. Also issued in 20 vols. without the manuscript insertions as the Walden Edition the same year. Pocket Edition. II vols. (A reprint of the Riverside Edition, without the Journal.) Boston, 1915.


A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers. Boston, etc., 1849. Second issue of the same edition, Boston, 1862. New and Revised Edition, Boston, 1868 [1867]. Later eds.: London, 1889, [1895]; New York, 1900.

Walden; or, Life in the Woods. Boston, 1854. Reprinted, 1864. Edinburgh and London, 1884. Camelot Classics, London, 1886. Many editions in England and America. Translated into German by Emmerich, Emma, Munich, 1897, and by Nobbe, Wilhelm, Jena and Leipzig, 1905. [The Bibliophile Society of Boston has published the original manuscripts (2 vols., 1909), containing about 12,000 more words than the regular editions contain.]

Excursions. [Posthumous essays, with Biographical Sketch by Emerson.] Boston, 1863. New York, 1913.

The Maine Woods. Boston, 1864. New York [1906].

Cape Cod. Boston, 1865 [1864]. Boston and New York, 1896, 2 vols. New York [1907].

Letters to Various Persons. Boston, 1865. [Collected and edited by Emerson.]

A Yankee in Canada, with Anti-Slavery and Reform Papers. Boston, 1866.

Early Spring in Massachusetts. [Ed. from the Journal by Blake, H. G. O.] Boston, 1881.

Summer. [Ed. from the Journal by Blake, H. G. O.] Boston and New York, 1884. London, 1884.

Winter. [Ed. from the Journal by Blake, H. G. O.] Boston and New York, 1888 [1887]. Translated into German by Emmerich, Emma, Munich, 1900.

Autumn. [Ed. from the Journal by Blake, H. G. O.] Boston and New York, 1892.

Miscellanies. Boston and New York, 1894 [1893]. Vol. X of the Riverside Edition.

Familiar Letters of Henry David Thoreau. [Ed. Sanborn, F. B.] Boston and New York, 1894. With new letters. Vol. XI of the Riverside Edition.

Poems of Nature. [Collected from Thoreau’s published prose and from his literary remains by Salt, H. S., and Sanborn, F. B.] Boston and New York, 1895. London, 1895.

Some Unpublished Letters of Henry D. and Sophia E. Thoreau. [Ed. Jones, S. A.] Jamaica [New York], 1899 [1898]. [Reprinted in the Manuscript and Walden editions of the Familiar Letters.]

The Service. [Ed. Sanborn, F. B.] Boston, 1902. [An early essay, only partly included in the Manuscript and Walden editions.]

The First and Last Journeys of Thoreau. [Ed. Sanborn, F. B.] Boston, 1905. 2 vols. Bibliophile Society. [Fragments, some of them still unpublished, from the Journal and elsewhere.]

Sir Walter Raleigh. [Ed. Metcalf, H. A.] Boston, 1905. Bibliophile Society. [The essay appears in part in the Week and in the Journal, Vol. 1.]


Thoreau’s Thoughts. [Ed. Blake, H. G. O.] Boston and New York, 1890.

Anti-Slavery and Reform Papers. [Ed. Salt, H. S.] London, 1890.

Essays, and Other Writings. [Ed. Dircks, Will H.] London [1891]. Camelot Classics.

Selections from Thoreau. [Ed. Salt, H. S.] London, 1895. Eversley Series.

There are numerous vols. containing separate essays and parts of longer works.


(1) Resistance to Civil Government. Æsthetic Papers. Boston, 1849. (2) A Plea for Captain John Brown. Echoes of Harper’s Ferry. Boston, 1860. (3) Remarks at Concord on the Day of the Execution of John Brown. Ibid. (4) Pilgrims [poem]. A Masque of Poets. Boston, 1878. (5) To My Brother [poem]. Sanborn’s Life of Thoreau. Boston, 1882. (6) The Service: Qualities of the Recruit. Concord Lectures on Philosophy. Cambridge, 1883. [Extracts read by Sanborn, F. B., from his manuscript of the essay. Only these extracts are printed in the collected editions of Thoreau.] (7) [Poem, Pray, to what earth, with a paragraph of prose.] The Personality of Thoreau. Sanborn, F. B. Boston, 1901. (8) Our Country [poem written about 1841]. Ibid. (9) [Letters from Thoreau.] Daniel Ricketson and His Friends. Boston, 1902. (10) Early Letter of Thoreau, during an Absence from College. Fifth Year Book of the Bibliophile Society. Boston, 1906. (11) Aphorisms by Henry D. Thoreau. Fragments of Old Unpublished Journals recently discovered among Thoreau’s Papers. Ibid. (12) Godfrey of Boulogne [poem, not to be found elsewhere]. Unpublished Poems by Bryant and Thoreau. Ed. Sanborn, F. B. Bibliophile Society. Boston, 1907. (13) [Three unpublished letters.] Thoreau in Vermont in 1856. Vermont Botanical Club, Bulletin No. 3. Burlington, Vermont, April, 1908.


(a) The Dial: (1) Sympathy [poem]. July, 1840. (2) Aulus Persius Flaccus. Ibid. (3) Stanzas, Nature doth have her dawn. Jan., 1841. (4) Sic Vita [poem]. July, 1841. (5) Friendship [poem]. Oct., 1841. (6) Natural History of Massachusetts. July, 1842. (7) Great God, I ask thee for no meaner pelf [poem]. Ibid. (8) The Black Knight [poem]. Oct., 1842. (9) The Inward Morning [poem]. Ibid. (10) Free Love [poem]. Ibid. (11) The Poet’s Delay [poem]. Ibid. (12) Rumors from an Æolian Harp [poem]. Ibid. (13) The Moon [poem]. Ibid. (14) To the Maiden in the East [poem]. Ibid. (15) The Summer Rain [poem]. Ibid. (16) The Laws of Menu [selections]. Jan., 1843. (17) The Prometheus Bound [translation from Æschylus]. Ibid. (18) Anacreon [with translations of II poems]. April, 1843. (19) Ethnical Scriptures: Sayings of Confucius [selections]. Ibid. (20) To a Stray Fowl [poem]. Ibid. (21) Orphics: I, Smoke; II, Haze [poems]. Ibid. (22) Dark Ages. Ibid. (23) Friendship, From Chaucer’s Romaunt of the Rose [selections]. Ibid. (24) Ethnical Scriptures: Chinese Four Books [selections]. Oct., 1843. (25) A Winter Walk. Ibid. (26) Homer. Ossian. Chaucer. Jan., 1844. (27) Pindar [fragmentary translations]. Ibid. (28) The Preaching of Buddha [selections]. Ibid. (29) Ethnical Scriptures: Hermes Trismegistus [selections]. Ibid. (30) Herald of Freedom. April, 1844. (31) Fragments of Pindar [translation]. Ibid.

(b) The Atlantic Monthly: (1) Chesuncook. June, July, Aug., 1858. (2) Walking. June, 1862. (3) Autumnal Tints. Oct., 1862. (4) Wild Apples. Nov., 1862. (5) Life Without Principle. Oct., 1863. (6) Night and Moonlight. Nov., 1863. (7) The Wellfleet Oysterman. Oct., 1864. (8) The Highland Light. Dec., 1864. (9) April Days. April, 1878. (10) May Days. May, 1878. (11) Days in June. June, 1878. (12) Winter Days. Jan., 1885. (13) The Emerson-Thoreau Correspondence [contains letters from Thoreau]. May, June, 1892. (14) Thoreau and His English Friend, Thomas Cholmondeley [contains a letter from Thoreau]. Sanborn, F. B., Dec., 1893. (15) A Bit of Unpublished Correspondence between Henry Thoreau and Isaac Hecker. Sept., 1902. (16) Thoreau’s Journal [extracts]. Jan.-May, 1905. (17) The Editor Who was never an Editor [contains two letters by Thoreau]. Perry, Bliss. Nov., 1907.

(c) Other periodicals: (1) A Walk to Wachusett. Boston Miscellany. Jan., 1843. (2) The Landlord. Democratic Review. Oct., 1843. (3) Paradise (to be) Regained. Ibid. Nov., 1843. (4) Thomas Carlyle and His Works. Graham’s Magazine. Mar., April, 1847. (5) Wendell Phillips before the Concord Lyceum. The Liberator. 28 Mar., 1845. (6) Slavery in Massachusetts. Ibid. 21 July, 1854. (7) The Last Days of John Brown. Ibid. 27 July, 1860. (8) Ktaadn and the Maine Woods. Union Magazine. July, Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., 1848. (9) Excursion to Canada. Putnam’s Monthly Magazine. Jan., Feb., Mar., 1853. (10) Cape Cod. Ibid. June, July, Aug., 1855. (11) The Succession of Forest Trees. New York Tribune. 6 Oct., 1860. [For other forms and appearances of this essay, see Allen’s Bibliography, p. 75]. (12) Inspiration [poem]. The Commonwealth [Boston]. 19 June, 1863. (13) The Funeral Bell [poem]. Ibid. 3 July, 1863. (14) Travelling [poem]. Ibid. 24 July, 1863. (15) Greece [poem]. Ibid. (16) The Departure [poem]. Ibid. 28 Aug., 1863. (17) The Fall of the Leaf [poem]. Ibid. 9 Oct., 1863. (18) Independence [poem.] Ibid. 30 Oct., 1863. (19) The Soul’s Season. Ibid. 6 Nov., 1863. (20) Days and Nights in Concord. Ed. Channing, W. E. Scribner’s Monthly. Sept., 1878. (21) [A letter of Thoreau’s to Emerson, unpublished elsewhere.] Thoreau’s Poems of Nature. Sanborn, F. B. Ibid. Mar., 1895. (22) Thoreau’s Unpublished Poetry [six short poems]. Sanborn, F. B. The Critic. 26 Mar., 1881.


Channing, William Ellery. Thoreau, the Poet-Naturalist. With Memorial Verses. Boston, 1873, 1902. [Many highly inaccurate quotations from Thoreau’s Journal.]

Japp, A. H. (H. A. Page, pseud.) Thoreau: His Life and Aims. A Study. London, 1878. Boston, 1877.

Marble, Annie Russell. Thoreau: His Home, Friends, and Books. [1902.]

Salt, Henry S. The Life of Henry David Thoreau. London, 1890. Abridged and included in the Great Writers series, London, 1896.

Sanborn, F. B. Henry D. Thoreau. (American Men of Letters series.) Boston, 1882, 1910. London, 1882.

—— The Personality of Thoreau. Boston, 1901.

—— The Life of Henry David Thoreau.… Boston and New York, 1917.


Alcott, A. Bronson. The Forester. Atlantic Monthly. April, 1862.

Briggs, Charles Frederick. A Yankee Diogenes. Putnam’s Monthly Magazine. Oct., 1854.

Burroughs, John. Thoreau’s Wildness. The Critic. 26 Mar., 1881.

—— Henry D. Thoreau. Century Magazine. July, 1882.

—— Indoor Studies. Boston, 1889. Pp. 1–42.

—— Henry David Thoreau. Chautauquan. June, 1889.

Canby, H. S. The Modern Thoreau. The Dial. 15 July, 1915.

Chambers’s Journal. An American Diogenes. 21 Nov., 1857.

Conway, Moncure D. Thoreau. Fraser’s Magazine. April, 1866.

Curtis, George William. From the Easy Chair. 1892 [1891]. Pp. 62–66.

Ellwanger, G. H. Idyllists of the Countryside. 1895.

Emerson, Ralph Waldo. Thoreau. Atlantic Monthly. Aug., 1862. Also printed as a Biographical Sketch in Vol. X of the Riverside Edition of Emerson, in Vol. X of the Riverside Edition of Thoreau, and in vol. 1 of the Manuscript and Walden Editions of Thoreau.

Evans, Marian (George Eliot). Review of Walden in The Westminster Review. Jan., 1856. [Never reprinted.]

Federn, Karl. Henry David Thoreau. Essays zur Amerikanischen Literatur. Halle, 1899.

Higginson, T. W. Short Studies of American Authors. Boston, 1880 [1879].

Howells, W. D. My First Visit to New England. Harper’s Monthly. Aug., 1894. Pp. 444, 446–448.

Jones, Samuel Arthur [Editor]. Pertaining to Thoreau. Detroit, 1901. [Very interesting. Contains early or obscure reviews and essays on Thoreau.]

Knortz, Karl. Ein amerikanischer Diogenes. Hamburg, 1899.

Le Gallienne, Richard. Review of Poems of Nature. London Star. 23 Jan., 1896.

Lessing, O. E. Essay on Thoreau. Das literarische Echo. 1912. P. 1544.

Lowell, James Russell. Review of the Week. Massachusetts Quarterly Review. Dec., 1849.

—— A Fable for Critics. 1848.

—— Thoreau. My Study Windows. Boston, 1871.

More, Paul Elmer. A Hermit’s Notes on Thoreau. Atlantic Monthly. June, 1901. Shelburne Essays, First Series. 1904.

—— Thoreau’s Journal. New York Evening Post. 3 and 10 Nov., 1906. Reprinted as Thoreau and German Romanticism. Nation, 8 and 15 Nov., 1906. Shelburne Essays, Fifth Series. 1908.

Muret, Maurice. Un Poète-Naturaliste Américain: Henry David Thoreau. La Revue. 15 Aug. and 1 Sept., 1902.

O’Connor, J. V. Thoreau and New England Transcendentalism. Catholic World. June, 1878.

Payne, W. M. Leading American Essayists. 1910.

Prinzinger, A. Henry D. Thoreau, ein amerikanischer Naturschilderer. Salzburg, 1895.

Salt, Henry S. Literary Sketches. London, 1888.

Saturday Review. An American Rousseau. 3 Dec., 1864.

Schinz, Albert. Esquisse d’une Philosophie des Conventions Sociales. Revue Philosophique de la France et de l’Étranger. June, 1903.

Sharp, William. Thoreau. In Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th and 11th editions.

Snyder, Helena Adell. Thoreau’s Philosophy of Life. With Special Consideration of the Influence of Hindoo Philosophy. Heidelberg [1902].

Stevenson, Robert Louis. Henry David Thoreau: His Character and Opinions. Cornhill Magazine. June, 1880. Familiar Studies of Men and Books. London, 1882.

Torrey, Bradford. Thoreau as a Diarist. Atlantic Monthly, Jan., 1905.

—— Friends on the Shelf. Boston, 1906.

Van Doren, Mark. Henry David Thoreau, a Critical Study. Boston and New York, 1916.

Vincent, Leon H. American Literary Masters. Boston, 1906.

Watts-Dunton, Theodore. Introd. to Walden. World’s Classics. Oxford, [1906].

Woodbury, Charles J. Talks with Ralph Waldo Emerson. London, 1890. Pp. 71, 76–95.