The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes (1907–21).
Volume IV. Prose and Poetry: Sir Thomas North to Michael Drayton.

XVI. London and the Development of Popular Literature



The batynge of Dyogens. Licensed 27 Sep., 1591 (identified by Collier, J. P., with A satirycall Dialogue or a Sharplye-invective conference, betweene Alexander the great and that truelye Woman-hater Diogenes 1616(?), an invective against women).

Englande’s Mourning Garment. n.d., but with address to reader signed Hen. Chettle. 1st ed. certainly appeared 1603. Rptd. 1603, etc.; 1744 et seq., Harl. Misc.; 1874, Ingleby, C. M., New Shakspr. Soc. Allusion-bks. pt. 1.

Kind-Hart’s Dreame. n. d. (Licensed Dec., 1592.) Rptd. 1842, Rimbault, E. F., Percy Soc.; 1874, Ingleby, C. M., New Shakspr. Soc. Allusion-bks. pt. 1. (The tract, though of slight merit, illustrates the style and literary form which was most fashionable at the moment. It is a dream vision: five popular celebrities (including Greene: see Harvey-Nashe Controversy) are introduced; they present complaints which expose existing abuses and gratify the people’s insatiable appetite for tales of deception.)

Pierce Plainnes seaven yeres Prentiship. 1593. See ante, Vol. III, Chap. XVI, p. 417.

Beginning of the reaction from Euphuism

Greenes Mourning Garment … which he presents for a favour to all Young Gentlemen that wish to weane themselves from wanton desires … licensed 2 Nov., 1590, published same year.

Greenes Never too Late. Or a Powder of Experience: sent to all Youthful Gentlemen. 1590.

Greenes farewell to Folly: sent to Courtiers and Schollers as a president to warne them from the vaine delights that drawes youth on to repentance. Licensed 11 June, 1587, published 1591.

A Maiden’s Dreame. 1591.

Coney-Catching Pamphlets

(Professionalism betrayed in the fabrication of pretentious titles and the claim to disinterested motives in publishing.)

A Notable Discovery of Coosnage. Now daily practised by sundry lewd persons called Connie-catchers and Crosse-biters. 1591. Rptd. 1592 and 1859 by Halliwell, J. O. Second part, 1591. Third part entered in Stationers’ register, 7 Feb. 1591/2.

The Defence of Conny-catching. By Cuthbert Cony-catcher. 1592. Rptd. 1859 by Adlard, J. E.

A Disputation Betweene a Hee Conny-catcher and a Shee Conny-catcher whether a Theefe or a Whoore is most hurtfull in Cousonage to the Common-wealth.… 1592. Rptd. with additions in 1617 as Theeves falling out, True Men come by their Goods, and in 1637 with sub-title The Belman wanted a clapper. A Peale of new Villanies rung out. (See Belman of London under Dekker.)

The Black Bookes Messenger. Laying open the Life and Death of Ned Browne, one of the most notable Cutpurses, Crosbiters, and Conny-catchers, that ever lived in England. 1592. (Thomas Middleton followed Greene’s idea with The Blacke Booke, 1604.)

(Cf. the imitations entitled: Questions concerning Conie-hood and the nature of the Conie, n.d.; Nihil Munchance, n.d. See, also, Chandler, F. W., The Literature of Roguery, 1907, vol. I, chap. III. For origins of genre, see Vol. III, Chap. V of the present work.)

Social Tracts and Confessions

Philomela. The Lady Fitzwaters Nightingale.… 1592.

A Quip for an Upstart Courtier: or, a quaint dispute between Velvet-breeches and Cloth-breeches. Wherein is plainely set downe the disorders in all Estates and Trades. Licensed 20 July, 1592. Rptd. 1606, etc.; 1871, Hindley, C., Miscellanea Antiqua Anglicana, pt. III.

Greens Groatsworth of Wit, bought with a Million of Repentance.… Written before his death, and published at his dying request. Licensed 20 Sept., 1592. Edited by Chettle, H. Earliest extanted. 1596. Rptd. 1600, etc.; 1813, Brydges, Sir E. (privately printed); 1874, Shakspere Allusion Bks. pt. 1; 1889, The Bookworm’s Garner, No. VI; 1871, Hindley, C., Miscellanea Antiqua Anglicana.


Bernhardi, W. Robert Greenes Leben und Schriften. Leipzig, 1874.

Collins, J. Churton: General Introduction to Plays and Poems. Oxford, 1905.

Grosart, A. B. Greene’s Complete Works. Huth Library. 1881–6.

Schelling, Felix E. The Queen’s Progress. n.d.

Storojenko, N.: Life of R. Greene. 1878. See vol. I of Huth Lib. ed.


(For The Unfortunate Traveller and Nashe’s Marprelate tracts, see ante, Vol. III, Chaps. XVI and XVII.)

The Anatomie of Absurditie: contayning a breefe confutation of the slender imputed prayses to feminine perfection, with a short description of the severall practises of youth, and sundry follies of our licentious times. 1589. (Licensed 19 Sept., 1588.) Rptd. 1590; 1866, Collier, J. P., Illustrations of Old Eng. Lit.

Pierce Penilesse his Supplication to the Divell. Describing the over-spreading of Vice, and suppression of Vertue. 1592 (licensed 8 Aug.). Rptd. 1592, etc.; 1842, Collier, J. P., Shakspr. Soc.; 1870, Miscellaneous Tracts, Temp. Eliz. and Jac. 1.

Strange Newes, of the intercepting certaine Letters, and a convoy of Verses, as they were going Privilie to victuall the Low Countries. 1592. Rptd. 1592, etc.; 1870, Misc. Trs., Temp. Eliz. and Jac. I. (In page headings the book is entitled Foure Letters Confuted and is licensed (12 Jan., 1592) as The Apologie of Pierce Penilesse.)

Christs Teares over Jerusalem. Whereunto is annexed a comparative admonition to London. 1593. (Licensed 8 Sep.) Rptd. 1594; 1613; 1815, Brydges, Sir E., Archaica. (The Terrors of the Night was licensed three months earlier but not published till 1594.)

The Terrors of the Night, or, A Discourse of Apparitions. 1594. (Licensed 30 June, 1593 and 15 Oct., 1594.)

Have with you to Saffron-walden. Or, Gabriell Harveys Hunt is up. Containing a full Answere to the eldest sonne of the Halter-maker. Or, Nashe his Confutation of the sinfull Doctor. 1596. (No entry in register.) Rptd. 1870, Collier, J. P., Misc. Trs., Temp. Eliz. and Jac. I.

Nashes Lenten Stuffe, Containing, The Description and first Procreation and Increase of the towne of Great Yarmouth in Noffolke: With a new Play never played before, of the praise of the Red Herring. 1599 (licensed 11 Jan., 1598–9). Rptd. 1745; 1809–10, Harl. Misc.; 1871, Hindley, C., Miscellanea Antiqua Anglicana.

The choise of Valentines. (In MS.; see McKerrow, R. B., Works, vol. III, A piece of pornography not devoid of literary art.)

Complete Works:

Grosart, A. B. Huth Library. 1883, 1885.

McKerrow, R. B.: Text 1904–5, Notes 1908. (4 vols. 5th vol. with memoir in preparation.)

(Cf. Cunningham, P., New Facts in the Life of Nashe, Shakspr. Soc. Papers, III, 178, and Upham, A. H., French Influence in English Literature, 1908.)


For representations previous to Nashe, see Rogers, F., The Seven Deadly Sins in Literature, 1907, and Schofield, W. H., Eng. Lit. from the Norman Conquest, p. 416, 1906. See also Dekker, T., The Seven Deadly Sins; Lodge, T., Wits Miserie and the Worlds Madnesse: discovering the Devils incarnat of this Age, 1596; More, Sir T., Treatise on the Four Last Things; Nashe, T., Pierce Penilesse; Rowlands, S., The Seaven deadly Sins all Horst and riding to Hell (satire appended to The Knave of Spades); Tom Tel-Troths Message and his Pens Complaint, 1600, rptd. 1876, Furnivall, F. J., New Shakspr. Soc. A modified form of this classification is also used by Anton, R., Rankins, W., Rowlands, S., Times Whistle.


B[char], then supposed to be by Homer, Eng. trans., Crowne of all Homers Works. Batrachomyomachia, or the Battaile of Frogs and Mise, George Chapman; Catullus’s poem on his yacht and two on Lesbia’s sparrow; Vergil’s Culex, trans. Spenser, E., published 1591; Lucian, M[char] (Muscae encomium), trans. in Works by Fowler, H. W. and F. G., 1905.


The collection in the Nymwegen Pallas, 1666. See Herford, C. H., Literary Relations, 1886, chap. VII.


The Noblenesse of the Asse … by A. B., 1595; Cornwallis, Sir W., Essayes of certaine Paradoxes, 1616 (2nd impression “inlarged,” 2 pts., 1617), contains mock-encomia on Richard III, etc.; Nashe, T., Lenten Stuffe; Pimlyco or Runne Red Cap; Randall, Thomas (i.e. Randolph), The High and mightie commendation of the Vertues of a Pot of Good Ale, full of Wit, 1642 (published with The Battle fought betweene the Norfolk Cock and the Wisbich Cock), rptd. 1661; Pills to Purge Melancholly as The Ex-Ale-tation of Ale (Ebsworth, J. W., in his ed. of the Pills assigns the song to Rowlands), 1783, Ritson, J., English Song, vol. II; Skelton, J., Prayse of Phylyp Sparrow (ante, Vol. III, Chap. IV); The Treatyse Answerynge the boke of Berdes (ibid., Chap. V., bibl. p. 560); Taylor, J., The Praise of Antiquity and the Commodity of Beggery, 1621 (verse and prose), The Praise and Vertue of a Jayle and Jaylers, 1623 (verse), The Praise of Cleane Linnen, 1624, The Needles Excellency, 1640.

Grobianism, as Herford has pointed out (Literary Relations), should also be regarded as a development, in which satire soon blended with burlesque.


See ante, Vol. III, Chap. V, bibl. p. 557; Beowulf; Brotanek. R., Alex. Montgomerie, 1896; Christie, R. C., Étienne Dolet, 2nd ed., 1899; Nisard, M. E. C., Les Gladiateurs de la République des Lettres aux XVe, XVIe, XVIIe Siècles, 1860; Schipper, T., William Dunbar, 1884; Sandys, J. E., Harvard Lectures on the Revival of Learning, 1905 (chap. VI).

Gabriel Harvey

For sketch of Harvey-Nashe Controversy, see ante, Vol. III, Chap. XVII, bibl. pp. 615, 616.

Brydges, Sir E. Restituta. Vol. III. 1814–6.

Collier, J. P. Rpts. of both Nashe’s and Harvey’s pamphlets. 1870.

Disraeli, I. Quarrels of Authors. 1814 ff.

Grosart, A. B. Introduction to works of Harvey. Huth Lib. 1884–5.

Morley, H. Hobbinol. Fortnightly Review, vol. V, pp. 274–283. (Attempt to rehabilitate Harvey’s character.)

Smith, G. C. Moore. Introduction to Pedantius. Louvain, 1905.

Subsequent Controversies

Vide Greene’s attacks on Marlowe: Gosson, Lodge and the stage-controversy (Vol. V of present work); Ben Jonson’s war with the Poetasters (Penniman, J. H., The War of the Theatres, Boston, 1897; Small, R. A., The Stage-quarrel, Breslau, 1899), also with Inigo Jones, Nath. Butter and Alex. Gill.

Marston, J. Scourge of Villanie. 1598. Answered by W. I. (William Ingram or John Weever?) in The Whipping of the Satyre, 1601, which provoked The Whipper of the Satyre, his Pennance in a White Sheet, 1610 (by Marston?).

Rowlands, S. Tis mery when knaves mete. 1600. Rptd. 1609, expurgated as Knave of Clubs. Rowlands severely criticised Belman of London, 1608, in Martin Mark-all, … his Defence and Answere to the Belman of London, 1610.

Davies, J. Scourge of Folly. 1611. Amongst other personal attacks, represents himself submitting Nefarius (no doubt easily recognisable at the time) to the indignities of a school flogging (Epig. 212).

Taylor, John, attacked Thomas Coryate in the Sculler, 1612, Laugh and be Fat, 1613, W. Fennor, H. Walker, G. Wither and other contemporaries.

Stephens, J., attacked the stage in the character of A Common Player in Essays and Characters, 1615, which was answered by the character of an Excellent Actor in the Overbury Collection and in Ignoramus, 1630 (Latin Comedy by Ruggles, G., answered by Cocke, J., in 3rd ed. of Stephens’s Essayes and Characters, 1631).


For Barclay, J., Skelton, J., Cock Lorell’s Bote, etc., see ante, Vol. III, Chaps. IV and V.

For tracts on Usury see: Coplands, W., Newes come from Hell of love unto all her welbeloved frendes, 1565; Wilson, Sir T., Discourse upon Usurye, 1572; Lodge, T., An Alarum against Usurers containing tryed experiences against worldly abuses, 1584, rptd. 1853, Shakspr. Soc., 1883, Complete works, Hunterian Club; Morse, M., The Arraignment and Conviction of usurie, 1595.

For more general satire: Hake, Edward, Newes out of Paules Churche-yarde, A Trappe for Syr Monye, 1567, Touchestone for this time present, 1574. Of Golds Kingdome and this unhelping age, 1604; Wilcox, T., A glasse for gamesters: and namelie for such as delight in cards and dice, 1581; Salter, T., A contention betwene three brethren; that is to say the whore-monger, the drunkarde and the dice-player, 1581; R[ankins], W[illiam], The English Ape, the Italian Imitation, the Foote-steppes of Fraunce, 1588; Timme, T., Discoverie of Ten Lepers, 1592; Gosson, S., An excellent newe ballad, declaringe the monstrous abuse in apparell, 1594, A glasse for vaynglorious women, 1594–5, Quippes for upstart new fangled Gentlewomen, 1595, rptd. 1866, Hazlitt, W. C., E.E.P.P. (issued anonymously, authorship assigned by Collier, J. P., on evidence of 2nd ed. inscribed “authore Stephen Gossen”).

Prynne, W., began his turbulent career with an attempt to reform the fashions of the day in Health’s Sicknesse, The Unlovelinesse of Lovelocks, 1628.

For Origins and Development of Classical Epigram and Satire see:

Boissier, G. L’opposition sous les Césars. 1875.

Butler, H. E. Post-Augustan Poetry from Seneca to Juvenal. 1909.

Croiset, A. and M. Histoire de la Littérature Grecque. 1899. Tomes i, ii, v.

Mackail, J. W. Latin Literature. 1891.

Martha, C. Les Moralistes sous l’Empire Romain. 1865.

Murray, G. A History of Ancient Greek Literature. 1897.

Nettleship, H. Essays in Latin Literature. 1885. Lectures and Essays. 2nd series. 1895.

Nisart, J. M. N. D. Études de Mæurs et de Critique sur les Poëtes latins de la Décadence. 1849.

Sellar, W. Y. The Roman Poets of the Augustan Age. 1892.

Heywood, John. A dialogue conteyning the number of the effectuall proverbes in the Englishe tounge.… With one hundred of Epigrammes and three hundred of Epigrammes upon three hundred of proverbes; and a fifth hundred of Epigrams. Whereunto are now newly added a syxt hundred of Epigrams by the sayde John Heywood. 1562. Rptd. 1576, etc.; 1867, Spenser Soc.; 1874, the Proverbs ed. by Sharman, J.; 1906, Proverbs, Epigrams and Miscellanies ed. by Farmer, J. S., Early Eng. Drama Soc.

Drant, Thomas. Medicinable Morall, that is the two bookes of Horace his Satyres englyshed. 1566.

Gascoigne, George. Steele Glas. 1576. (Ante, Vol. III, Chap. X, p. 235.)

Kendall, Timothy. Flowres of Epigrammes. 1577.

D[avies], [J.] and M[arlowe], C. Epigrammes and Elegies. 1590.

Lodge, Thomas. A Fig for Momus: containing pleasant Varietie, included in Satyres, Eclogues, and Epistles. 1595. Rptd. 1883, Gosse, E., Works.

Donne, John. Satires. (See ante, Chap. XI.)

Hall, Joseph. Virgidemiarum. Sixe Bookes. First three bookes of Toothlesse Satyrs. 1597. Sixe Bookes, three last bookes of byting Satyres. 1598. Rptd. 1599; 1602; 1879, Grosart, A. B., Complete Poems, Manchester. [For Hall’s indebtedness to Scaliger, J. C., see article by Bensly, E., shortly to appear in Modern Language Review. See, also, Hall’s works, ed. Pratt, J., 1808; ed. Hall, P., Oxford, 1837; ed. Wynter, P., Oxford, 1863.]

Guilpin, Edward. Skialetheia, on a Shadowe of Truth in certain Epigrams and Styres. 1598. Rptd. 1878, Grosart, A. B.

Marston, John. The Metamorphosis of Pygmalion’s Image, and certain Satyres. 1598 (published anonymously). The Scourge of Villanie, three Bookes of Satyres. 1598. Rptd. 1856, Halliwell, J. O., Library of Old Authors; 1879, Grosart, A. B.

Rankins, William. Seaven Satyres applyed to the weeke. 1598.

Anon. Tyros Roving Megge. Planted against the walles of Melancholy.

Bastard, Thomas. Chrestoleros; Seven bookes of Epigrammes. 1598. Rptd. 1880, Grosart, A. B.

Barnfield, Richard. Encomion of Lady Pecunia. 1598. Rptd. 1605. (Vide Collier, J. P., Bibl. Cat., 1865, vol. I, pp. 47–50.)

Weever, John. Epigrammes in the oldest Cut and Newest Fashion. 1599.

M., T. (Possibly Thomas Middleton, prob. Thomas Moffat). Micro-cynicon, Sixe Snarling Satyres. 1599.

(1 June, 1599, edict of Jo[hn Whitgift] Cantuar. and Ric[hard Bancroft] London entered in Stationers’ register to the effect that Virgidemiarum, Pigmalion with certaine other Satyres, The Scourge of Villanye, The Shadowe of Truthe in Epigrams and Satyres, Snarlinge Satyres, Caltha Poetarum, Davyes Epigrams with Marlowes Elegyes, the booke againste woemen, viz. of marriage and wyvinge, the XV joyes of marriage, should be burnt and “that noe Satyres or Epigrams be printed hereafter … that all Nasshes bookes and Doctor Harveyes bookes be taken wheresoever they maye be found and that none of theire bookes be ever printed hereafter.” Pygmalion, The Scourge of Villany, Skialetheia, Snarling Satires, Davies’s Epigrams, Marriage and Wyving, XV Joyes of Marriage, and the Harvey-Nashe books were burnt. Hall’s Satires and Caltha Poetarum (by Cutwode, T., mostly love poems, rptd. 1815, Roxburghe Club) were “staied.”)

Rowlands, Samuel. The letting of humours blood in the Head Vaine. 1600. Humors Looking-glasse. 1608. (Anonymous, attributed to Rowlands.)

Thynne, Francis. Emblems and Epigrames. 1600. 1876, Furnivall, F. J.

Breton, Nicholas. Pasquils Mad-Cappe and his Message. Pasquil’s Foolescap. Pasquils Mistresse, or the Worthy and Unworthy Woman. Pasquil’s Passe and Passeth Not, set downe in three pees, his Passe, Precession, and Prognostication. All in 1600.

Woodhouse, Peter. The Flea. 1605. Rptd. 1877.

P[arrot], H[enry]. Mous-Trap. 1606. Epigrams by H. P. 1608. Laquei Ridiculosi, or Springes to catch Woodcocks. 1613. The Mastive, or Young-Whelpe of the Old-Dogge. Epigrams and Satyres. 1615. VIII. Cures for the Itch. Characters, Epigrams, Epitaphs, by H. P. 1626.

Walkington, T. (d. 1621). The Optick Glasse of Humors. 1607. [A predecessor of Burton.]

West, Richard. The Court of Conscience or Dick Whippers Sessions. 1607. A Century of Epigrams. 1608. (Vide Warton’s Hist. of Eng. Poetry, vol. IV.) [See D. of N. B. for other works by, or attributed to him.]

Anon. Epigrams or Humours Lottery. 1608.

Tofte, Robert. Translation of Ariosto’s Satyres. 1608.

Heath, John. Two Centuries of Epigrammes. 1610.

Sharpe, Roger. More fooles yet. 1610. (Epigrams.)

Scot, T. Philomythie or Philomythologie. Wherein outlandish birds, beasts and fishes are taught to speake true English verse. 1610, 1616.

Davies, John, of Hereford. The Scourge of Folly. (See ante, p. 542.)

Taylor, John. The Scoller … or Gallimawfry of Sonnets, Satyres and Epigrams. 1612. Rptd. 1614. Taylor’s Water-Worke. Epigrammes … being ninety in number, besides two new made Satyres. 1651.

Wither, George. Abuses Stript and Whipt. 1613 ff.

Freeman, Thomas. Rubbe and a Great Cast: and Runne and a Great Cast. The second Bowle. In 200 Epigrams. 1614.

C., R. The Times Whistle: or A Newe Daunce of Seven Satires, and other Poems. c. 1614. Rptd. 1871, Cowper, J. M., E.E.T.S.

Brathwaite, Richard. A Strappado for the Divell. Epigrams and Satyres alluding to the time. 1615. Rptd. 1878, Ebsworth, J. W. (with intro.). Natures Embassie: or, the Wilde-mans Measures: Danced naked by twelve Satyres. 1621. [See Hales, J. W., Folia Litteraria, 1893.]

Goddard, William. A Neaste of Waspes latelie found out and discovered in the Law (Low) Countreys yealding as sweete hony as some of our English bees. 1615. A Satyricall Dialogue, or a sharplye-invective Conference betweene Alexander the Great and that trulye woman-hater Diogynes. Imprinted in the Lowe Countryes for all such gentlewomen as are not altogether Idle nor yet well ocupyed. n.d. A Mastif Whelp, with other ruff-Island-lik Currs fetcht from amongst the Antipodes. Which bite and barke at the fantasticall humorists and abusers of the time.… Imprinted amongst the Antipodes and are to be sould where they are to be bought. n.d. (Assigned by Collier, J. P., Poetical Decameron, to T. M. and dated c. 1600.)

Anton, Robert. Philosophers Satyrs. 1616. Of which a 2nd ed. was produced as Vices Anotimie scourged and corrected in new satirs. 1617.

Harington, Sir John. The most elegant and witty Epigrams of Sir John Harrington. 1618. Rptd. 1625, etc. (A few had been appended to Alcilia by J. C., 1613. For miscellaneous remnants in prose and verse and especially for letters, vide Harington, R. H., Nugae Antiquae, 1769. Rptd. 1779; 1792; 1804, re-ed. by Park, T.)

Jonson, Ben. Epigrams. Published with Works. 1616.

Hutton, Henry. Dunelmensis: Follie’s Anatomie or Satyres and Satyricall Epigrams with a Compendious History of Ixion’s Wheele. 1619. Rptd. 1842, Rimbault, E. F., Percy Soc.

Wroth, Thomas. An Abortive of an idle Hour, or a century of Epigrams. 1620.

Peacham, Henry. Thalia’s Banquet. 1620.

Martyn, Joseph. Newe Epigrams, having in their Company a mad Satyre. Licensed to George Eld, 1619. Earliest extant copy, 1621.

Hayman, Robert. Quolibets. 1628.

Randolph, Thomas. Aristippos or, The Joviall Philosopher. 1630.

Anon. Epigrammes, mirrour of New Reformation. 1634.

The following books should be consulted:

Alden, R. M. The Rise of Formal Satire in England. Philadelphia. 1899.

Collier, J. P. Poetical Decameron. 1820. 3rd, 4th, 5th conversations.

Seccombe, T. and Allen, J. W. The age of Shakespeare. 1904. Vol. I, bk. I, § 9.

Shade, O. Satiren u. Pasquille, a. d. Reformationszeit. 1862–3.

Warton, T. History of English Poetry from the Twelfth to the close of the Sixteenth century. Ed. by Hazlitt, W. C. 1871. Vol. IV, sections LXII—LXVI.


Anticipations of the Genre

Vision concerning Piers the Plowman (allegorical portraits, ante, Vol. II, Chap. I); Bartholomaeus Anglicus and Higden (description of national and social types, ibid. Chap. III); Skelton (Bowge of Court: types of courtiers, Vol. III, Chap. IV); Barclay (Ship of Fools: types of folly discussed rather than portrayed, ibid.); Cock Lorell (glimpses of individual types of lower classes, Chap. V); Mock Testaments (classification according to some dominant characteristic, ibid.); Copland’s Hye Waye to the Spittel Hous (vivid descriptions of character and appearance from the view of failure in life, ibid.); Fraternitye of Vagabonds, Caveat and XXV Orders of Knaves (precise definitions of rogue-nomenclature, ibid.); T. Lodge’s Wits Miserie (portrayal of devils as impersonations of specific vices, see above); T. Greene’s Quip; T. Nashe, especially Pierce Penilesse.

Classical Sources

Aristotle: Rhetoric, Bk. II. Ed. Cope, E. M., and Sandys, J. E., 1877. Ethics, Bk. IV. Ed. Grant, Sir A., 1857–8. (Except in the case of Earle and Bacon, Aristotle’s influence can be traced only through Theophrastus.) Theophrastus. Trans.: Casaubon, I., 1592; Editio ultima recognita … aucta et locupletata, 1617; Healey, J., 1616; Jebb, R. C., revised by Sandys, J. E., 1909.

English Writers

Ormerod, Oliver. The Picture of a Papist, and a Discourse of Popish Paganisme. 1605. The Picture of a Puritane. 1605.

Hall, Joseph. Characters of Virtues and Vices. 1608.

Anon. The Cobler of Canterburie. 1608. (“The exposition of the eight degrees of Cuckolds.”)

M., W. The Man in the Moone telling Strange Fortunes. 1609. Rptd. 1849, Halliwell, J. O., Percy Soc.

Overbury, Thomas. A Wife: now the Widdow of Sir Thomas Overburye. Being a most exquisite and singular Poem of the Choice of a Wife. Whereunto are added many witty characters, and conceited Newes, written by himself and other learned Gentlemen his friends. 1614 ff. (There had already appeared in the same year A wife, now a Widowe, without characters.) Note contemporary imitations, The Husband, with commendatory verses by ben Jonson, 1614; A second Select Husband, by John Davies of Hereford, in 1616; The Description of a Good Wife, by Brathwaite, and the Happy Husband, by Patrick Hannay, 1619; Picturae loquentes, by Saltonstall, W., with a Poem of a Maid, 1631 (?); A Wife not ready made but bespoken, Robert Aylett, 1653. (See D. of N. B. art. Overbury.) 1890, Rimbault, E. F., Library of Old Authors, rpt. of ninth ed. (i.e. in 1616). See Fox, A. W., A Book of Bachelors, 1899.

Stephens, John. Satyrical Essayes, characters and others. 1615. New Essayes and Characters. With a new Satyre in defence of the Common Law and Lawyers: mixt with reproofe against their enemy Ignoramus. 1631. (Vide Brydges, Restituta, vol. IV, 503 ff. (N. &Q. Ser. IV, vol. III, 550).)

Breton, Nicholas. Characters upon Essayes, morall and divine. 1615. The Good and the Badde, or Descriptions of the Worthies and Unworthies of this Age. 1616. 2nd ed. 1643, under title England’s selected characters.

Mynshul, Geffray. Essayes and Characters of a Prison and Prisoners. 1618. Rptd. 1638; 1821, Edinburgh.

P[arrot], H. Cures for the Itch. Characters, Epigrams, Epitaphs. 1626.

Earle, John. Microcosmographie or a Piece of the World discovered; in Essays and Characters. 1628 (54 characters). Re-ed. 1811, Bliss, P., with bibliography of Character writers; 1871, Fowler, J. T. (ed. from a MS. among Hunter MSS. in Durham Cath., dated 14 Dec., 1627, with 46 characters of which 3 are unique, collated with printed eds. from which it frequently differs. Vide N. &Q. Ser. IV, vols. VIII &IX); 1897, West, A. S., with excellent introduction and notes.

M., R. Micrologia. Characters or Essayes of Persons, Trades and Places. 1629.

Alexandrinus, Clitus [Richard Brathwaite]. Whimzies, or, A new Cast of Characters. 1631. Rptd. 1859, Halliwell, J. O.

Saltonstall, Wye. Picturae Loquentes. 1631. 2nd ed. 1635.

Lupton, Donald. London and Country Carbonadoed and quartered into severall Characters. 1630. (See British Bibliographer, vol. 1, 464.) Rptd. Harl. Misc. (ed. Park), vol. IX.

Anon. A Strange Metamorphosis of Man, transformed into a Wildernesse. Deciphered in Characters. 1634. (Noticed by Haslewood in Censura Literaria, vol. VIII, 284.)

Habington, William. Castara. 2nd ed. 1635, has characters of A mistris, A wife, A friend; 3rd ed., 1640, has further addition, The Holy Man.

Anon. A Brown Dozen of Drunkards (ali-ass Drinkhards) whipt and shipt to the Isle of Gulls. 1648.

For adaptation of the character sketch to party politics, its subsequent development as social satire, especially in the hands of John Cleveland and Samuel Butler, its application to moral instruction, especially by William Law (Serious Call to the Unconverted, 1729), see later vols. of present work.

Works to be consulted:

Baldwin, C. S. Modern Language Association of America, June, 1904.

Cross, W. L. Development of the English Novel. 1899.

Greenough, C. N. Studies in the Development of Character-writing in England. Harvard, 1898. Larger work in preparation.

Halliwell, J. O. Books of Characters. Illustrating habits and manners of Englishmen, from the reign of James 1st to the Restoration. 1857. Confused Characters. 1860.

Lee, E. Selections from La Bruyère and Vauvenargues. 1902.

Raleigh, W. A. The English Novel. 1891.

Seccombe, T. and Allen, J. W. Age of Shakespeare. Vol. 1, bk. II, § 4.

Whibley, C., in Blackwood’s Magazine, June, 1909.

English character writing should be distinguished from French portraits, which may have been imitated from Holland or copied from the famous relazioni in which the Venetian ambassadors depicted the most important personalities of the court to which they might be attached; see M. de Boislisle Ann.-Bulletin de la Soc. de l’Hist. de France, t. XXXIII, 1896. The French portrait consists in a description of the physiognomy, complexion, figure, appearance and mannerisms of an individual designated under a pseudonym. This art was cultivated in the salons which flourished during the first half of the 16th cent., in such romances as Le Grand Cyrus and Clélie and in the collection of portraits made under the auspices of Mlle. de Montpensier. After the appearance of Charles Sorel’s Description de l’isle de Portraiture, 1659, the art, as a social amusement, began to decay, but reached its consummation in the memoir-writers, especially Saint Simon, and started on a new stage of development in La Bruyère. Owing to the absence of salons in England, this style of writing has remained undeveloped, though there are a few striking exceptions, such as Philautus’s description to Psellus of the Gentlewoman in Euphues and his England (p. 340 of Arber’s ed.), Nashe’s portrait of Harvey in Have with you, the pictures of low-class passengers in the Cobler of Canterburie and Westward for Smelts, the portrait of Colonel Hutchinson by his wife and the historical portraiture of the second half of the 17th cent. On the other hand, the cultivation of portraits, maxims, etc., have left French 17th cent. literature poor in character sketches of the English type, Le Moine’s Peintures Morales, 1643, being the nearest parallel in this period. It should also be noted that the same influence which favoured the portrait and starved the generic character also hindered the development of the discursive essay, in spite of Montaigne’s example, but encouraged the maxime and the pensée, i.e. condensed and aphoristic reflections, of which the most accomplished master was La Rochefoucauld.

See Cousin, V., La Société française au XVIIe Siècle, 1854–1869; Fournel, V., La litt. indépendante et les écrivains oubliés au XVII siècle; Franz, A., Das literarische Porträt in Frankreich im Zeitalter Richelieus und Mazarins, 1906; Lee, E., Intro. to selections from La Bruyère and Vauvenargues, 1903; Petit de Julleville, Hist. de la langue et de la litt. française, 1897, vol. IV, chap. II; Sainte-Beuve, Portraits de Femmes, 1840, Causeries du Lundi, 1853, vols. XI, XIV, Nouveaux Lundis, 1863, vols. V, X.


Epictetus. Dissertationes. Text. Shenkl, H. 1898. Trans. Healey, John. 1610.

Plutarch’s Moralia. Bernardakis. 1888–96. Trans. Holland, P. 1603. Vitae Parallelae. Trans. North, T. 1579.

Lucius Annaeus Seneca (not the dramatist). Dialogi; De Beneficiis; Epistolae morales. Text. Haase, F. 1853. Trans. Lodge, Thomas: The Workes, both Morrall and Natural, of Lucius Annaeus Seneca. 1614.

Montaigne. First appearance of essays, 1580. Revises and expands his work and adds a third book, 1588. Early trans. by Florio, John, 1603, 2nd ed. 1613.

See Becker, P. A., Montaignes geistige Entwicklung in Deutsche Literaturzeitung, 4 Sept., 1909; Bond, R. W., Montaigne, 1907; Dieckow, F. A. F., John Florio’s englishe Übersetzung der Essais Montaigne’s und Lord Bacon’s, Ben Jonson’s und Robert Burton’s Verhältnis zu Montaigne, 1903; Dowden, E., Montaigne, 1907; Texte, J., Études de Litt. Européenne, 1898; Villey, P., Les sources et l’évolution des Essais de Montaigne, 1908.

Anticipations in English Literature

Caxton’s prefaces (ante, Vol. III, Chap. XIV). Jest-books (especially Merrie Tales and quicke answers, ibid. Chap. V). Andrew Boorde, William Bullein (ibid.). Disquisitions on Women (especially the Scholehouse for Women). Lord Burghley, Precepts or Directions for the well ordering and carriage of a man’s life (printed 1637, though composed in 16th cent. See Peck’s Desiderata Curiosa, and Kippis’s ed. of Biographia Britannica.)

English Essays

Remedies against Discontentment, drawen into severall Discourses from the writinges of auncient Philosophers. 1596. (See Arber, E., A Harmony of the Essays, etc., 1895, Prologue, pp. ix and x.)

Greeneham. Diverse sermons and tracts uppon severall textes. 1598.

Essayes by Sir William Corne-waleys. 1600, etc. Essayes of certaine Paradoxes. 1616. Essayes. Newlie corrected. Discourses upon Seneca the tragedian. 1632.

Johnson, Robert. Essaies or Rather Imperfect Offers. 1601, etc.

J., H. The Mirrour of Worldly fame. 1603. Rptd. Harl. Misc. 1808, II, 515>

Anon. Essays of conjecture. 1607.

T[uvill], D[avid]. Essaies Politicke and Morall. 1608. Essayes Morall and Theologicall. 1609, 1629, etc.

Stephens, John. Satyricall Essayes. 1615.

A Discourse against flattery. 1620.

Brathwaite, Richard. Essaies upon the five Senses. 1620. Rptd. 1635; 1815.

Horae Subsecivae. Observations and Discourses. 1620. (See N. &Q. Ser. x, vol. xii, Nos. 293 and 296 for attempt to father the essays on Bacon. Generally attributed to lord Chandos or Gilbert Cavendish. See Brydges, Sir S. E., Censura literaria, 2nd ed., 1815.)

Mason, William. A handfull of Essaies or Imperfect Offers. 1621.

Bacon, Francis. Essays. 1597–1625. For the development of the essays and the addition of new ones in the different editions, for reprints of the Religious Meditations and Places of perswasion and disswasion, see Arber, E., A Harmony of the Essays, etc., 1895. (Among other modern commentators and editors may be mentioned: Abbott, E. A., 1885 (attempt to trace influence of B.’s scientific research on the Essays); Spedding, J., Ellis, R. L., Heath, D. D., 1857 (highly appreciative); West, A. S., 1897; Whateley, R., 6th ed., 1864; Wright, W. Aldis, 1862 ff.

Felltham Owen. Resolves. n.d. (1620?). First complete ed. 1628. Rptd. 1631, etc. See also Retrospective Review, vol. X, 343–355.

Peacham, H. (the younger). The Truth of our Times. Revealed out of one Man’s Experience by way of Essay. 1638.

Jonson, Ben. Timber; or Discoveries made upon Men and Matter as they have flowed out of his daily readings; or had their refluxe to his peculiar Notion of the Times. [Published posthumously in vol. II of fol. ed. 1640–1. Among modern editors and commentators are: Castelain, M. Discoveries, a critical edition, with an introduction and notes on the true purport and genesis of the book, 1906 (contends that Timber was extra title added by publisher: suggests that Discoveries was a note-book begun after the burning of B. J.’s library, 1623, and that some, at least, of the notes were destined to be put into verse; Castelain was the first thoroughly to investigate the extent of B. J.’s indebtedness to other writers); Ben Jonson. L’homme et l’œuvre. 1572–1637, 1907 (in chap. III constructs character and habit of thought of the writer out of Discoveries); Gifford, W., Works of Ben Jonson, 1816, re-ed. Cunningham, F., 1875; Schelling, F. E., Timber; or Discoveries made upon Men and Matter, Boston, 1892 (intro. contains careful analysis of Jonson’s style); Spingarn, J. E., The sources of Jonson’s Discoveries, 1905 (traces some thoughts to Heinsius, de Tragoediae constitutione, 1611, and Jacobus Pontanus, Poeticarum Institutionum Libri III, 1594); Swinburne, A. C., A study of Ben Jonson, 1889; Whalley, P., Jonson’s Works, 1756 (first pointed out the fact, admitted in sub-title of Discoveries, that the book was not original).]

(Cf. Littleboy, A. L., Relations between French and English Literature in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, 1895; Maiberger, M., Studien über d. Einfluss Frankreichs auf d. Elizabethan Literatur, 1903; Upham, A. H., French Influence in English Literature, 1908.)


The development of the Baconian essay was retarded by the age’s love of more formal literature, especially of dialogues, which covers almost exactly the same ground as the Jacobean essayists, with the added attractions of style, and influenced Addison and his circle no less than Cornwallis, R. Johnson, Bacon, Felltham, etc.)

The Booke of Honor and Armess Wherein is discoursed the causes of Quarrell, and the nature of Injuries, with their repulses. Also the Meanes of satisfaction and pacification. 1590.

Brathwaite, Richard. The English Gentleman. 1630, 1641, 1652. The English Gentlewoman. 1631, 1641. Ar’t asleepe Husband? 1640. (Prose. Bolster lectures on moral themes and a novelette.)

—— The Schollers Medley. Rptd. 1638 as A Survey of History, or a Nursery for Gentry, and in 1651.

Breton, Nicholas. [See D. of N. B. for fuller bibliography.]

—— Wits Trenchmour, in a Conference betwixt a Scholler and an Angler. 1597. (A trenchmour (i.e. riotous dance) of repartees, similes and reflections beginning as a dialogue on angling and developing into tales and discourses delivered by a scholar.)

—— The Wil of wit, Wits Wil, or Wils Wit, chuse you whether. 1599. Rptd. 1606; 1860, Halliwell-Phillipps, J. O.

—— The Figure of Foure. Registered 1597 and 1607. Only The Second Part of ed. 1636 (rptd. 1654) exists. (Proverbial utterances, each describing four things united under some common similarity.)

—— Wonders Worth the Hearing which being read or heard in a Winters evening by a good fire, or a Summers morning … may serve both to purge melancholy from the minde, and grosse humours from the body. 1602.

—— A Poste with a Packet of Mad Letters. 1603, 1609, 1637. (Letters mostly addressed to typical figures. It should be remembered that letter-writing had already become an art under the influence of Cicero, Seneca and Guevara. Angell Day’s English Secretary (1586), had been followed by many other manuals of letter-writing. J. Hall had published Six Decads of Epistles (1607–10), and the letters of J. L. Guez de Balzac had been translated by W. T[yrwhit] and R. B. (Sir R. Baker?).)

—— Strange Newes out of divers countries. 1622. (Facetious satire against society under the guise of news.) Cf. Overbury’s Newes.

—— The Court and Country, or, a Briefe Discourse betweene the Courtier and Country-man. 1618.

—— Fantasticks: serving for a perpetual Prognostication. 1626.

Bryskett, Ludowick. Discourse of Civil Life. 1606. (Composed 1584–9; dialogue on moral philosophy in which Spenser takes part.)

Munday, Anthony. The Mirrour of Mutabilitie: or principal Part of the Mirrour of Magistrates. 1579.

—— The Paine of Pleasure, profitable to be perused of the Wise, and necessary to be by the Wanton. 1580.

—— The Defence of Contraries. Translated out of French. 1593.

Peacham, Henry (the elder). The Garden of Eloquence, conteyning the Figures of Grammar and Rhetorick, from whence may bee gathered all manner of Flowers, Coulors … Formes and Fashions of speech. 1577.

Peacham, Henry (the younger). (See, also, under English Essays.) The Art of Drawing with the Pen, and limming in water colours … with the true manner of painting upon glasse, the order of making your furnace.… 1606. Rptd. 1612 as Graphice, etc. The Compleat Gentleman, fashioning him absolute in the most necessary and commendable qualities concerning Minde or Bodie.… 1622. Rptd. 1634; 1661; 1906, intro. by Gordon, G. S. Tudor and Stuart lib. (Peacham treats of the details of a nobleman’s education. Criticises flogging in schools, strongly recommends travel and insists on the study of heraldry.) The Worth of a Peny: or a caution to keep money. With the causes of the scarcity and misery of the want hereof in these hard and mercilesse times. 1647 (misprint for 1641?), etc. Rptd. 1903, in Arber’s English Garner.

Powell, Thomas. Tom of All Trades or The Plaine Path-way to Preferment. 1631. Rptd. 1876, Furnivall, F. J., New Shakspr. Soc. Cf. Ducci, L., Ars Aulica, trans. Blount, E., 1607; de Refuge, E., Traité des Cours, 1617, trans. Reynolds, J., 1642; Faret, N., Des Vertus nécessaries à un prince, 1623; L’Honnête Homme ou l’art de plaire, 1630.

Rich, Barnabe. Opinion Diefied. Discovering the Ingins, Traps and Traynes that are set in this age, whereby to catch opinion. 1613. The Honestie of this Age, proving by good circumstance that the world was never honest till now. 1614 ff. (Rptd. 1844, Cunningham, P., Percy Soc.) The Irish Hubbub, or the English Hue and Crie. 1617. (General denunciation of society.)

Wits Common-Wealth. (Generic title for Politeuphuia, Wits Common-Wealth, by John Bodenham, 1597 (18 eds. before Restoration). Palladis Tamia. Wits Treasury, … by Meres, F., 1598. Wit’s Theatre of the Little World, 1599. Palladis Palatium, 1604. These four books contain quotations and maxims from various writers. See Ingleby, C. M., Shaks. Allusion-Bks. Part 1, 1874; New Shakspr. Soc., and cf. Theatrum Virtutis et Honoris; oder Tugend Büchlein aus etlichen … Griechischen und Lateinischen Scribenten ins Teutsch gebracht, durch W. Pirckheymern, … Nürmberg, 1606.)


Canaans Calamitie, Jerusalems Misery, or the dolefull destruction of faire Jerusalem by Tytus. (Verse. Ascribed to Dekker by Grosart, A. B.)

The wonderfull Yeare 1603, wherein is shewed the Picture of London, lying sicke of the Plague. 1603.

The Batchelor’s Banquet. 1603, etc. (Founded on the Quinze Joyes de Mariage (see ante, Vol. III, Chap. V, bibl. p. 551). Important as evidence of the interest still taken in satires on women and married life (see ibid., pp. 98–102, bibl. pp. 551–554). Cf. Tom Tell-Trothes New-yeares Gift, 1593, a satire on jealousy, The passionate Morrice, 1593, a review of the art of wifing as exemplified by eight typical couples dancing a morrisdance. See also The praise of Vertuous Ladies in Breton’s The Wil of Wit, and Rowlands’s pamphlets. Cf. Vol. III, Chap. V, pp. 98–102, bibl. pp. 551–554.)

The seven deadly Sinnes of London: drawne in seven severall Coaches through the seven severall Gates of the Citie, bringing the Plague with them. 1606. Rptd., Arber, E., 1879, The English Scholar’s Lib., no. 7.

Newes from Hell; brought by the Divel’s Carriers. 1606. Rptd. 1607, enlarged and entitled A Knights Conjuring done in Earnest discovered in Jest; 1842, Rimbault, E. F., Percy Soc. (For earlier conceptions of visions of Hell, Heaven and Purgatory, see Homer: Odyssey, XI (trans. Chapman, G.); Aristophanes: Frogs; Plato: picture of the infernal judges at the end of the Gorgias, of Tartarus in Phaedo and the vision of Er the Armenian in the Republic (trans. Jowett, B., 1871, 3rd ed. revised, 1892); Plutarch: vision of Timarchus in II[char] in Moralia (trans. Holland, P., 1603); Vergil: Georgics IV and Aeneid VI; Lucian: the [char] and the [char] (trans. Necromantia … interlocutors, Menippus and Philonidas; ptd. by Rastell, J., n.d.) in Dialogues of the Dead; Dante: Inferno, Paradiso, Purgatorio; Staunton, W.: St. Patrick’s Purgatory, 1409; Damerval: Sensuit le grãt dyablerie qui traicte coment Sathan fait demõstrance a Lucifer de tous les maulx que les mõdains font selon leurs estatz vacations et mestiers …; Dunbar, William: The Dance of the Sevin Deidly Synnis, 1503–8; Lyndsay, Sir David, Ane Satyre of the Three Estaits, 1540; Rabelais: Pantagruel. Bk. II, chap. 30 (imitated in Le Nouveau Panurge, Gaillard, Michel); Ford, J.: ’T is Pity she’s a Whore, act III, sc. 6; Tarlton’s Newes out of Purgatorie, c. 1589; Tell-Trothes New-yeares Gift, 1593 (represents Robin Goodfellowe as just returning from Hell whence he brought an oration on jealousy). Cf. also title Greenes Newes both from Heaven and Hell, 1593, by Barnabe Rich, and Dekker His Dreame (below). See Wright, T.: St. Patrick’s Purgatory, an essay on the legends of Purgatory, Hell and Paradise, current during the Middle Ages, 1844; Becker, E.: Visions of Heaven and Hell, 1898, Johns Hopkins Univ. Diss.)

The Double P.P., a Papist in Armes, Bearing Ten severall Shields, encountered by the Protestant.… 1606. (Verse attack on the Roman Catholics ascribed to Dekker by Collier, J. P. (Bibl. Cat. 1, 197).)

Jests to make you merie. Written by T. D. and George Wilkins. 1607. (Jest-book: ascribed to Dekker.)

The Dead Terne or Westminster’s Complaint for long Vacations and short Termes. Written in manner of a Dialogue betweene the two Cityes London and Westminster. 1608. (A compilation of history, anecdotes, comment, satire, conceits, descriptions, exposures and complaints all dealing with London mostly anticipating the themes which he treated more fully in subsequent works.)

The Belman of London: Bringing to Light the most notorious Villanies that are now practised in the Kingdome. 1608. 2nd and 3rd eds. (with additions) in same year. Re-edited 1612 as O per se O, or a newe Cryer of Lanthorne and Candle Light.

Lanthorne and Candle Light: or, the Bell-Mans Second Nights Walke. In which he brings to light a Brood of more strange Villanies than ever were till this yeare discovered. 1608. Rptd. 1609 (twice); 1612 as O per se O, or a new cryer of Lanthorne and Candlelight Being an addition or Lengthening of the Bell-mans Second Night-walke.

(Both rogue-pamphlets frequently rptd. under such titles as English Villanies six severall Times prest to death, but still reviving again, are now the seventh time discovered.… 1632; English Villanies seven severall Times prest to Death by the Printers … are now the eighth time, etc.… 1637.)

The Ravens Almanacke, Foretelling of a Plague, Famine and Civill Warre. 1609. (Parody on prognostications.)

Foure Birdes of Noahs Arke; the Dove, the Eagle, the Pelican and the Phoenix. 1609. Rptd. 1857, Halliwell, J. O. (A devotional work.)

Worke for Armorours, or the Peace is broken. Open Warres likely to happen this yeare 1609. 1609. (Allegorical description of the rising of poverty against wealth.)

The Gulls Horne-booke or Fashions to please all sorts of Guls. 1609. Rptd. 1812, Nott, Dr., Bristol; 1892, Saintsbury, G., Eliz. and Jac. Pamphlets; 1902, McKerrow, R. B., King’s Lib. (For Friedrich Dedekind’s Grobianus vide Goedeke, K., Grundriss zur Gesch. der deuts. Dichtung, 2e Aufl., 1886, Bd II, Buch IV, § 158, and Herford, C. H., Literary Relations, 1886, chap. VIII. A Nuremberg poet at the end of the 15th cent. parodied German poems on courtesy and manners into instructions for negligence. Seb. Brant in Narrenschiff (ante, Vol. III, Chap. IV) invented St. Grobianus as a suitable figure-head for the ill-mannered character. Dedekind, F., produced, 1549, Grobianus, De morum simplicitate (Latin poem), ed. 1903, by Bömer, A., in Lateinische Litteraturdenkmäler des XV und XVI Jahrhts., English trans. 1605, The Schoole of Slovenrie or, Cato turnd wrong side outward, by R. F.

A strange Horse Race, at the End of which comes in the Catch-pols Masque. And after that the Bankrouts Banquet: which done, the Divell falling sicke, makes his last Will and Testament this present yeare, 1613. 1613.

Dekker His Dreame: in which beeing rapt with a Poeticall Enthusiasme, the great volumes of Heaven and Hell to him were opened, in which he read many wonderfull Things. 1620. Rptd. 1860, Halliwell-Phillipps, J. O., see The Bookworm, vol. II, p. 349, 1888.

Rod for Run-awayes. 1625. (Satire on those who desert London in plague-time.)


Grosart, A. B., in Non-Dramatic Works of T. Dekker. Huth Lib., 1881.

Swinburne, A. C. Nineteenth Century. Jan. 1887.

SAMUEL ROWLANDS [for full bibliography, see D. of N. B.].

The Betraying of Christ, Judas in Despaire with other poems on the Passion. 1598.

Tis mery when Knaves mete. 1600, and later years under differing titles. Contains humorous tales of knavery and burlesque adventure, reminiscent of fabliaux and jest-books, narrated in bright easy verse.)

The Letting of Humours Blood in the Head-vaine; with a new Morisco daunced by seaven Satyres upon the bottome of Diogenes Tubbe. 1600. (Suppressed.) Rptd., Edinburgh, 1815.

Humors Ordinarie, where a Man may be verie merrie, and exceeding well used for his Sixepence. n.d.

Greenes Ghost haunting Cony-catchers, With the Merry Conceits of Doctor Pinchbacke a notable Makeshift. 1602. Rptd. 1626. (Marks another step in the fusion of the rogue pamphlet into the picaresque novel; the anecdotes illustrating triumphs of ingenuity and mother with rather than a felonious professionalism. For another example of trading on Greene’s name, see Barnabe Rich, Greenes Newes, 1593.

’T is Merrie when Gossips meete. 1602 ff. (For previous literature of this type see ante, Vol. III, Chap. V, bibl. pp. 551–554.)

Looke to it: for Ile stabbe ye. 1604.

Hell’s broke loose. 1605. (Epic on John of Leyden.)

A terrible Battell betweene the two consumers of the whole world; Time and Death. n.d. (1606 according to Gosse, see below, Collected Works.) Rptd. 1841, Utterson, E. V., Beldornie Tower Press.

Diogenes Lanthorne. 1607. (Copied from Lodge: Catharos Diogenes in his Singularity, 1591. Consists of misanthropic monologue of Diogenes in streets of Athens and ends with jest-book fables in verse.)

Democritus or Doctor Merryman his Medicines against melancholy Humours by S. R. 1607. Rptd. 1609, etc.

Famous History of Guy, Earl of Warwick. 1608.

Humors Looking-glasse. 1608. (Epigrams on London characters and incidents similar to Humours Blood.)

Whole crew of Kind Gossips. 1609. (Six wives discuss their husbands in the usual Elizabethan spirit. The husbands afterwards pass equally severe strictures on them.)

The Knave of Clubbs. 1609. (See above, Tis mery when Knaves mete.)

Martin Mark-all, Beadle of Bridewell; his Defence and Answere to the Belman of London. Discovering the long concealed Originall and Regiment of Rogues, when they first began to take head, and how they have succeeded one the other successively unto the sixe and twentieth yeare of King Henry the eight, gathered out of the Chronicle of Crack-eropes, and (as they term it) the Legend of Lossels. 1610. (The last part, the Runnagates Race tells of the foundation of the order of vagabonds by Jack Mendall (J. Cade) and of their cooperation in the risings of the North (cf. Jusserand, J., La Vie Nomade, trans. Smith, L. T., 8th ed., n.d.). The tract ends with an unhistorical sketch of the subsequent vagabond leaders who were now becoming proverbial, and in some sort shared in the popular imagination the place occupied by the older and not less questionable heroes such as Robin Hood, Sir Bevis, etc. The list includes Hugh Roberts, Jenkin Cowdiddle, Spysing, Puffing Dicke, Laurence Crosbiter, and Cock Lorell (ante, Vol. III, Chap. V, bibl. p. 548).)

The Knave of Harts. Haile Fellow, well met. 1612. (Verse portraits of types of knaves and anecdotes of knavery.)

More Knaves yet. The Knaves of Spades and Diamonds, with new Additions. 1613. (Verse anecdotes, etc., mostly dealing with rogues.) Rptd. 1843, Rimbault, E. F., Percy Soc.; 1841, Utterson, E. V., Beldornie Tower Press.

A Fooles Bolt is soone shott. 1614. (Jests and Tales in verse mostly recording the blunders of fools.)

The Melancholie Knight, by S. R. 1615.

The Night Raven. 1620. Rptd. 1634; 1841, Utterson, E. V., Beldornie Tower Press. (Purports to represent scenes after dark, but presents the usual sketches of knavery.)

A Paire of Spy-knaves. n.d. (1620?).

Good Newes and bad Newes. 1622. Rptd. 1841, Utterson, E. V., Beldornie Tower Press. (Another verse jest-book.)

Heavens Glory, seeke it. Earths Vanitie, flye it. Hells Horror, fere it. 1628. (The vol. contains The Common Cals, Cryes and Sounds of the Bell-man; or, divers Verses to put us in Minde of our Mortalitie.) See Gosse, E., Complete Works of S. Rowlands, Hunterian Club, 1880.

(Contains an admirable appreciation of Rowlands’s work.)


(See footnote to p. III, Chap. V, Vol. III, and cf. Ben Jonson’s masque The Gipsies Metamorphosed, 1621.)

S., E. The Discoverie of the Knights of the Poste: or the Knights of the post, or common baylers newly Descried. Wherein is shewed and plainely laide open many lewde actions and subtill devises, which are daily practised by them: to the great abuse of most honorable Councelers, learned Judges and other grave Majestrates: And also to the defrauding and utter undoing of a greate no. of her Majesties good and loyall subjects. 1597. (E. S., supposed by G. C. Moore Smith to be Edward Sharpham, vide N. &Q. 11 July 1908.)

Hutton, Luke. Luke Hutton’s Lamentation. 1597 (?) (Hazlitt).

Hutton, Luke. The Blacke Dogge of Newgate. c. 1600. 1638 enlarged as The Discovery of a London Monster.

The Life and Death of Gamaliel Ratsey, a famous thief of England. 1605. Rptd. 1866, Collier, J. P., Illus. of Old Engl. Lit., vol. III.

Johnson, R. Looke on me, London. I am an honest Englishman, ripping up the Bowels of Mischiefe, lurking in thy sub-urbs and Precincts. 1613. Rptd. 1864, Collier, J. P., Illus. of Early Engl. Pop. Lit., vol. II.

Anon. The severall notorious and lewd cousonages of John West and Alice West, … who were convicted in the Old Baily.… 1613. (Narrates impostures and confidence tricks. The gold finding and necromancy are strikingly similar to the deceits exposed by Erasmus, Colloquia Familiaria Alcumistica and Exorcismus sive Spectrum, and Scot, R., Discoverie of Witchcraft. The soothsaying and clairvoyance illustrate the tales told by Doctor Burcot and William Cuckoe in Chettle’s Kind-Hart’s Dreame, and the pranks played by Dr. Pinchbacke in Rowlands’s Greenes Ghost.)

Fennor, William. Comptors Common-Wealth. 1617. Rptd. 1619; 1629.

Mynshul, Geffray. Essayes and Characters of a Prison and Prisoners. 1618. (Cf. Ashton, J., The Fleet, its rivers, prison and marriages, 1888.)

Anon. A briefe collection of the exactions, extortions, oppressions … towards the lives, bodies and goods of prisoners, done by Alexander Harris.… 1620–1 (broadsheet). Rptd. 1879, Camden Soc.

Clavell, John. Recantation of an ill led Life: a discoverie of the High-way Law. 1628. See Collet, S., Reliques of Literature, 1823; Granger, J., Biog. History of Great Britain, 5th ed., vol. III; Caulfield, J., Portraits and Memoirs, 1813, vol. 1.

Anon. Frogges of Egypt, or the Catterpillars of the Commonwealth Truly Dissected and Laid open. 1641.

A Whip for the Marshal’s Court by Robert Robins. 1647.

See Chandler, F. W., The Literature of Roguery, 1907, chap. III. The writer of the present chapter is indebted to this book in many ways.


(The whole output of literature on tobacco is eminently characteristic of the age in its elaborate titles, far-fetched conceits and bitter invective. The spirit of criticism is so strong that even the partisans of the weed satirise the habits of the smoker.)

Frampton, John. Joyfull newes oute of the newe founde worlde.… Englished by 1577. According to Arber, E., the earliest detailed account of the herb. See also Athenæum, 27 June, 1 Aug., 1857.

Buttes, Henry. Dyets Dry Dinner. That is, varietie of Fare: provided, prepared and ordered, at Dyets own prescription: Prandium, without Wine, but Accipitrimum, without all drinke except Tobacco (which also is but Dry Drinke): … 1599. (Recommends tobacco as a sedative, narcotic, purge, but adds A Satyricall Epigram, upon the wanton, and excessive use of Tobacco.)

Anon. The Metamorphosis of Tobacco. 1602. (Dedicated To my loving Friend Master Michael Drayton.)

Anon. Work for Chimney-sweepers: or A warning for Tabacconists. Describing the pernicious use of Tobacco.… As much to say, Better be chokt with English hemp, then poisoned with Indian Tobacco. Written by Philaretes. 1602.

Anon. A Defence of Tobacco: with a friendly answer to the late printed Booke called Worke for Chimney-sweepers. 1602.

King James. A Counter Blaste to Tobacco. 1604; 1616. Ed. Arber, E., 1895 (good introduction). [For King James’s other works, see D. of N. B. and Rait, R. S., Lusus Regius, 1902.]

G[ardiner], E[dmund]: The Triall of Tabacco. Wherein his worth is most worthily expressed. 1610. (A medical defence.)

Anon. Perfuming of Tobacco, and the great Abuse committed in it. 1611.

Barclay, William. Nepenthes; or, the vertues of Tobacco. Edinburgh, 1614. Rptd. 1841, Miscellany of the Spalding Club, vol. 1.

Sylvester, Joshua. Tobacco battered; and the Pipes shattered (about their ears that idlely Idolize so base and barbarous a Weed; or at least-wise over-love so loathsome Vanitie:) by a Volley of holy Shot thundered from Mount Helicon. 1614 (verse).

T., C. An Advice how to plant Tobacco in England. 1615.

Deacon, John. Tobacco tortured, or the filthie fume of tobacco refined. 1616.

Rich, Barnabe. The Irish Hubbub, or the English Hue and Crie. 1617. (Denounces tobacco-smoking in a general attack on society.)

Brathwaite, Richard. The Smoaking Age, or the Man in the Mist. Dedicated to those three renowned and inparallel’d heroes, Captain Whiffe, Captain Pipe and Captain Snuffe; to whom the Author wisheth as much content as this smoaking age can afford them. At the signe of Tearenose. 1617. Rptd. 1703. Vide Corser’s Collectanea, pt. II, p. 361.

Bennett, E. A treatise … touching the inconveniences, that the importation of tobacco out of Spaine, hath brought into this land. (About 1620.)

Thorius, R. Hymnus tabaci. 1626.


Bragge, W. Bibliotheca nicotiana. Birmingham, 1880.

Cleland, H. W. On the History and Properties, Chemical and Medical, of Tobacco. Glasgow, 1840.

Fairholt, F. W. Tobacco: its history and Associations. 1859.

Tiedeman, F. Geschichte des Tabaks. 1854.


Barclay, Sir R. Discourse of the Felicitie of Man: or his Summum Bonum 1598. (Amusing histories and anecdotes.)

Tarlton, Richard. Tarlton’s Jigge of a horse loade of Fooles. (Composed before 1588.) 1884, Halliwell, J. O., Tarlton’s Jests, Shakspr. Soc. (Verse. Idea of the Ship of Fools converted into journey in cart down Fleet Street for a puppet show. Types suggested by contemporary London society. See Herford, C. H., Literary Relations, chap. VI, pp. 372 ff.)

Anon. Tarlton’s Newes out of Purgatorie, n.d. (Ptd. before The Cobler of Canterburie, 1590.)

The Cobler of Canterburie. 1590. Rptd. 1862, Ouvry, F. (privately ptd.). (Coll. of prose stories, mostly about cuckolds.)

Anon. Tarlton’s Jests, drawn into three parts. 1. His Court-witty Jests. 2. His sound city jests. 3. His Countrey Pretty Jests. 1611 (earliest ext. ed., but 1st series mentioned by Nashe 1592 and 2nd series licensed 1609). Rptd. 1864, Hazlitt, W. C., Shakespr. Jest-books, vol. II (illustrates the universal fame of Tarlton by quotations from contemporary authors); 1876 (?), Ashbee, E. W., Fac-simile reproduction (privately printed); 1884, Halliwell, J. O., with notes and life, Shakspr. Soc.

Anon. Maroccus extaticus. Or Bankes bay horse in a trance. A discourse set downe in a merry dialogue between Bankes and his beast; Anatomising some abuses and tricks of this age. 1595. (Dialogue between the animal and its master is a satire on the abuses of London life. The horse’s description of the hypocrisy of the puritan and of the landlord particularly noteworthy, and foreshadow the character writers.)

Jack of Dover, his quest of Inquirie, or His Privy Search for the Veriest Foole in England. 1604. 1842, Percy Soc.; 1864, Hazlitt, W. C., ibid., vol. II.

Pasquils Jests, mixed with Mother Bunches Merriments. 1604, etc.; Rptd. 1864, Hazlitt, ibid.

Newes from Graves End. 1604. (Assigned by Collier, J. P., to Dekker.)

Jests to make you merie … written by T. D. (Dekker?) and George Wilkins. 1607.

Johnson, Richard. The Pleasant Walkes of Moore-fields. 1607. Rptd. 1864, Collier, J. P., Illus. of Early Engl. Pop. Lit., vol. II. Pleasant Conceites of Old Hobson. 1607. Rptd. 1843, Percy Soc.; 1864, Hazlitt, op. cit.

Anon. Merrie Conceited Jests of George Peele. 1607, etc. 1864, Hazlitt, ibid.

Munday, Anthony. Song of Robin Hood in Metropolis. (Verses on the Guildhall Gate (see Stow’s Survey, bk. III).)

The Great Frost. Cold doings in London, except it be at the Lottery. With news out of the Country. 1608. Rptd. 1903, Social Engl. Illus., An Engl. Garner. (An excellent piece of journalism describing the amusements and accidents connected with the freezing of the Thames, etc.)

Armin, Robert. A nest of Ninnies. 1608. Rptd. 1842, Collier, J. P., Fools and Jesters, Shakspr. Soc. (Records a number of jests perpetrated by court fools. See Herford, op. cit. chap. VI, p. 375, for relation of Nest to Ship literature of the 16th cent., and Fool literature of the 17th.)

Pimlyco, or, Runne Red-Cap. Tis a mad world at Hogsdon. 1609. Rptd. 1891, Bullen, A. H., Antient Drolleries (no. 2).

Rowley, W. A search for money, or the lamentable complaint for the Losse of the wandring Knight, Mounsieur l’Argent. 1609. 1840, Percy Soc.

Anon. Westward for Smelts, or, the Waterman’s fare of mad merry Western wenches whose tongues, albeit like Bell-clappers they never leave ringing, yet their tales are sweet, and will much content you. Written by Kinde Kit of Kingstone. 1620. Rptd. 1848, Halliwell, J. O.

Taylor, John. [See D. of N. B. for full list.]

—— Cold Tearme … or the Metamorphosis of the River of Thames. 1621. (Ballad ascribed to Taylor, J.)

—— The World runnes on Wheeles, or oddes betwixt carts and coaches. 1623. (Review of the new modes of locomotion in the city where were starving the waterman’s profession. Cf. A pleasant Dispute between Coach and Sedan. 1636.)

—— The Fearefull Sommer. 1625. Rptd. 1869, Spenser Soc. (Description of the plague.)

—— Wit and mirth. Chargeably collected Out of Taverns, Ordinaries, Innes, Bowling-Greenes and allyes, ale-houses, Tobacco-shops, Highwayes and Water-passages. Made up and fashioned into Clinches, Bulls, Quirkes, Yerkes, Quips and Jerkes. Apothegmatically bundled up and garbled at the request of old John Garretts Ghost. 1629. Appeared in collected ed. of Taylor, … 1630. Rptd. 1864, Hazlitt, op. cit. vol. III.

—— John Taylor the Water-Poet’s Travels through London to visit all the Taverns. 1636. Rptd. 1870–7, Spenser Soc.

Anon. Robin Good-Fellow; his mad pranks and merry jests. Earliest ext. ed. 1628. Some version probably existed in the 16th cent., see intro. to rpt. 1841, Collier, J. P., Percy Soc.; 1845, Halliwell, J. O., Illustrations of the Fairy Mythology of a Midsummer Night’s Dream, Shakspr. Soc.; 1875, Hazlitt, W. C., Fairy Mythology of Shakespeare. Early in the 17th cent. a number of incidents drawn from the book were versified and sold as a chap-book with the title The merry pranks of Robin Good-Fellow; cf. The merry Prankes of Robin Goodfellow in Percy’s Reliques. (Begins as a jest-book copied from Eulenspiegel (ante, Vol. III, Chap. V, p. 105 and bibl. p. 555) and develops into the jests and tricks played by a fairy. The Second Part of Robin Good-Fellow, commonly called Hob-Goblin: with his mad Prankes and merry Jests, published the same year, contains a proportion of songs and catches inserted among the tricks. The legend of Robin Good-Fellow, according to Wright, T. (Foreign Quarterly Review, no. 35), dates from the 13th cent. at least. It is frequently alluded to in Eliz. literature (e.g. Tarlton’s Newes out of Purgatorie, Munday’s The Two Italian Gentlemen, Guilpin’s Skialetheia, Midsummer Night’s Dream, etc.).)

P[eacham], H. The Art of Living in London. 1642. Rptd. Harl. Misc. vol. IX.

For supplementary list of Jest-books, see Hazlitt, W. C., Handbook to Early Engl. Lit., 1867, p. 300.


The most dangerous and memorable adventure of Richard Ferris, … who departed from Tower Wharf, on Midsummer Day last past … who undertook, in a small wherry boat, to row, by sea, to the city of Bristow.… 1590. Rptd. 1903, Social England Illustrated, An English Garner.

Kemp’s nine days’ wonder. Performed in a dance from London to Norwich. 1600. Rptd. 1840, Dyce, A., Camden Soc.; 1903, Social England Illustrated. Alluded to by Marston, The Scourge of Villanie, 1599; Jonson, B., Every Man out of his Humour (acted 1599); Rowley, W., A Search for Money, 1609; Brathwaite, R., Remains after Death, 1618. Kemp figures in The Returne from Parnassus, 1606, and The Travailes of The three English Brothers, 1607 (?).

Taylor, John. The Pennyles Pilgrimage, or the Money-lesse perambulation … from London to Edenborough (prose and verse). 1618.

—— A Very Merry Wherry-Ferry-Voyage; or Yorke for my Money (verse). 1622. Rptd., Hindley, C., Misc. Antiq. Angl. See Halliwell-Phillipps, J. O., Lit. of the 16th and 17th cents. illustrated, 1851.

Brathwaite, R. Barnabae Itinerarium. Barnabees Journall, under the Names of Mirtilus &Faustulus shadowed. 1638. Rptd. 1820, by Haslewood, J., with elaborate bibl.; 1876, W. C. Hazlitt’s rpt. of Haslewood.


Harington, Sir John. A New Discourse of a stale subject called the Metamorphosis of Ajax. 1596.

Ulysses upon Ajax. 1596. (Davies, J., of Hereford speaks of Ulysses upon Ajax as being the work of a different hand (Wits Bedlam, 1617) but the similarity of style is unmistakable.)

An Anatomie of the Metamorpho-sed Ajax. By T. C.… Rpt. of all three tracts, 1814, from press of Whittingham, C., Chiswick. Vide Collier, J. P. Poetical Decameron, 1820. (Ajax is meiosis for “a jakes” and the series of pamphlets, probably all published in the same year, exemplify the nearest approach in English literature to the humour of Rabelais. Marston in The Scourge of Villanie, Bk. III, Sat. II, speaks of loathsome brothel rime, that stinks like Ajax froth, or muck-pit slime.)

The Knight of the Sea. 1600.

Anton, R. Meriomachia. 1613. Rptd. 1909, Becker, G., in Archiv für das Studium der neueren Sprachen etc., Vol. CXXII.

Brathwaite, Richard. A Solemne Joviall Disputation. 1617. (On the laws of drinking.)

Pasquils Palmodia, and His progresse to the Taverne. Rptd. 1620; 1634; 1866, Collier, J. P., Illus. of Old Engl. Lit., vol. 1.

Taylor, J. A Dogge of Warre, or, the Travels of Drunkard (mostly verse) 1630.

—— Drinke and welcome: or, the Famous Historie of … Drinks. 1637. Rptd. 1871, no. 17 of Ashbee’s Occasional Fac-simile Reprints.


(Cf. Pantagrueline Pronostication, 1533, and the Fool’s prophecy in Lear (act III, sc. 2).)

Nashe, T. A wonderfull, strange and miraculous Astrologicall Prognostication for this yeer of our Lord God, 1591 … by Adam Fouleweather, student in Assetronomy. Rptd. 1892, Saintsbury, G., Eliz. and Jac. Pamphlets. (Parody of soothsayers’ pamphlets. (Ante, Vol. III, Chap. V, pp. 123, 124.) No entry in Stationers’ register.)

Breton, N. Pasquil’s Passe and Passeth Not, set downe in three pees, his Passe, Precession, and Prognostication. 1600.

Waldegrave, R. (publisher). The whole prophecie of Scotland, England and some part of France and Denmark, prophesied bee mervellous Merling, Beid, Bertlington, Thomas Rymour, Waldhave, Eltraine, Banester, and Sibbilla, all according to one. Containing many strange and mervelous things. 1603. See also Laing, D., A Collection of Ancient Scottish Prophecies, 1833; and The Romance and Prophecies of Thomas of Erceldoune, intro. by Murray, J. A. H., E.E.T.S. 1875, no. 61.

A Piece of Friar Bacon’s Brazen-heads Prophecie. By William Terilo. 1604. Rptd. 1844, Halliwell, J. O., Percy Soc. (The pamphlet is a satire contrasting the distrust and artificiality of the 17th cent. with the simplicity and industry of the former generation.)

Newes from Rome of two mightie armies … also certaine prophecies of a Jew called Cabel, Shilock.… Translated out of Italian by W. W. 1606. (See N. &Q. 24 July 1909.)

The Raven’s Almanacke; foretelling of a Plague, Famine and Civill Warre, that shall happen this present year 1609. 1609. (A parody, ascribed to Dekker.)

Cobbes Prophecies, his signes and tokens, his Madrigalls, Questions, and Answeres, with his spirituall lesson. 1614. Rptd. 1890 (private).

The Owles Almanacke; prognosticating many strange accidents that shall happen. 1618 … by Jocundary Merrie-braines. 1618.

Wither, G. Fragmenta Prophetica. 1669. Rptd. 1872, Spenser Soc.


The public agitation over supernatural questions continued to form a background to popular thought, as is seen in the tracts of Nashe and Dekker, broadsides, news-sheets and in the dramatists. For origins of this phase of superstition in the social disorders of the late 15th and 16th cents., and for the beginning of daemonology in Jacob Sprenger’s Malleus Maleficarum, see ante, Vol. III, Chap. V, pp. 125 ff. For bibl. see ibid. p. 562 and N. &Q. Ser. X, vol. XI, no. 286, pp. 491 ff., also Lecky, W. E. H., Rationalism in Europe, 4th ed. 1870, vol. 1. chap. 1. Subsequent to R. Scot’s Discoverie of Witchcraft, the following works may be noted:

Gifford, G., Discourse of the Subtill Practices of Devilles, 1587. Holland, H., A Treatise against Witchcraft, 1590. Nashe, T., The Terrors of the Night, 1594. King James, Daemonologie, 1597 (Edinburgh), 1603 (London). Chamber, J., Treatise against Judicial Astrologie, 1601. Heydon, Sir C., A Defence of Judicial Astrologie in answer to Mr. J. Chamber, 1603. Gifford, G., Dialogue of Witches and Witchcraft, 1603 (rptd. 1842, Wright, T., Percy Soc.). Perkins, P., Discoverie of the Damned Art of Witchcraft, 1610. Cotta, J., The Triall of Witchcraft, 1616. Roberts, Alexander, Treatise of Witchcraft, 1616. Cooper, Rev. Thomas, The Mystery of Witchcraft, 1617. Goodcole, H., The wonderful Discovery of Elizabeth Sawyer … her conviction … together with the Devil’s Access to her.… 1621. (Source of The Witch of Edmonton.) Vicars, T., The Madnesse of Astrologers, 1624. Bernard, R., Guide to Jurymen, 1627.

The whole dispute was enhanced by controversies over particular cases of witch craft, such as the paper war waged between John Darrell and George More on the one side, and by Samuel Harsnet, John Deacon and John Walker on the other, over the possession and dispossession of William Somers, and over “the strange and grevous vexation by the Devil” of seven persons in Lancashire. The whole country was thrown into excitement over the Lancashire trials of 1612 (the case is reported in a pamphlet by Thomas Potts, 1612) and great interest was aroused by cases of imposture, of which the most celebrated was that of the “Boy of Bilson.” He feigned fits and “cast out of his mouth rags, thred, straw, crooked pins” when in the presence of a certain woman, who was promptly arrested as a witch. These episodes led to the production of such works as: Witches apprehended, examined and executed, for notable villanies.… With a strange and true triall how to know whether a woman be a Witch or not, 1613; A Treatise of Witchcraft … with a true narration of the witchcrafts which Mary Smith … did practise … and lastly of her death and execution, 1616; The Wonderful Discoverie of the Witchcrafts of Margaret and Philip Flower, … 1618.

For fuller examination of the subject and its continuation through the 17th cent. see later vols. of present work.

News-agents and Political Journalists

Elderton, W. The true fourme and shape of a monsterous chyld.… 1565. A New Yorkshyre song. 1584 etc.

Tarlton, Richard. A very lamentable and wofull Discours of the fierce Fluds, whiche lately flowed in Bedford shire … and in many other places … the 5 of October 1570. A newe booke in English Verse, entitled, Tarltons Toyes. 1576. Tarltons devise uppon the unlooked for great snowe. 1578. Tarltons Farewell. 1588. A Sorrowful newe Sonnette Intituled Tarltons Recantation. 1589. Tarltons Repentance, or his Farewell to his Frendes in his Sicknes a little before his Deathe. 1589. A pleasant Dyttye, Dialogue wise betweene Tarltons Ghost and Robyn Good Fellowe. 1590.

Rich, Barnabe. Besides novels and romances (see ante, Vol. III, Chap. XVI) and numerous tracts on Ireland, he produced: A right exelent and pleasant Dialogue betwene Mercury and an English Souldier, contayning his application to Mars, 1574 (1st part exposes the ill-treatment of English soldiers and enters a plea for archery); Greenes Newes both from Heaven and Hell, 1593, rptd. 1624 as A New Irish Prognostication (purports to be printed from Greene’s papers but is really a treatise on Ireland. It may have been Rich who also published a booklet of sonnets with title Greenes Funeralls by R. B.… A Martiall Conference pleasantly discoursed between two Souldiers only practised in Finsbury Fields.… 1598).

Munday, A. [For fuller bibliography, see D. of N. B.]

—— A Watch-word to Englande, to beware of Traytors and tretcherous Practises, which have beene the Overthrowe of many famous Kingdomes and Commonweales. 1584. (Arising from the Campion affair but of a more general character.) View of Sundry Examples. n.d. Rptd., Collier, J. P., Shakspr. Soc., 1851. (Relates murders, strange incidents and prodigies occurring 1570–80.)

[See, also, Pollard, A. F., Tudor Tracts, 1532–1588. 1903.]

Collections of Songs and Broadsides
(See ante, Vol. III, Chap. V, bibl. p. 558, and Chap. VIII, bibl. pp. 579, 580. The greater number of extant broadsides are subsequent to the Civil War, but the following collections contain specimens of our period.)

Antidote Against Melancholy. 1661. Rptd. 1876, Ebsworth, J. W.

Ashton, J. A Century of Ballads. 1887. Humour, Wit and Satire of the Seventeenth Century. 1883.

Bagford Ballads. 1876. Ebsworth, J. W. Ballad Soc.

Bullen, A. H. Carols and Poems from the fifteenth century to the present time. 1886.

Collier, J. P. A Collection of Old Ballads anterior to the reign of Charles I. 1840. Percy Soc. A Book of Roxburghe Ballads. 1868. Broadside, black-letter Ballads printed in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. 1868. Twenty-five old Ballads and Songs. 1869. (Coll. of MSS., temp. Eliz. and Jac. Probably copies of broadsides.) Illustrations of Early English Popular Literature. 1863. (Contains songs, ballads and murder pamphlets, together with political tracts.)

Deloney, T. Strange Histories, n.d. Garland of Good Will. Earliest known ed., a fragment dated 1604.

Deuteromelia, or the second Part of Musick’s Melodie. 1609. (Sequel to Pammelia.)

Evans, Robson. Old Ballads. 1810.

Farmer, J. S. Merry Songs and Ballads prior to the year 1800. 1897.

Furnivall, F. J. Love-poems and humourous Ones. 1874. Ballad Soc.

Goldsmid, E. Quaint Gleanings from Ancient Poetry. 1884.

Huth, H. Ancient Ballads and Broadsides published in England in the Sixteenth Century. 1867. Philobiblon Soc.

Johnson, Richard. Besides a number of romantic and narrative ballads of which the Nine Worthies of London, 1592, is best known, he produced: The Crowne Garland of Golden Roses, 1612, etc., rptd. 1845, Chappell, W., Percy Soc.: The Golden Garland of Princely Pleasures and Delicate Delights, 3rd ed., 1620.

Lemon, R. Catalogue of a Collection of Printed Broadsides in the Possession of the Society of Antiquaries of London. 1866. (Title-pages, reproduction of wood-cut illustrations, descriptions of contents.)

Munday, A. Banquet of Dainty Conceits. 1581. (Songs and ditties for popular tunes.)

Pammelia. Musicks Miscellanie. 1606.

Percy, Bp. Reliques of Ancient Poetry. 1765. Ed. Wheatley, H. B., 1876. Percy Folio Manuscript, Hales, J. W. and Furnivall, F. J.; Ballads and Romances, 1867–8; Loose and humorous Songs, 1867, E.E.T.S.

Roxburghe Ballads. Ed. Ebsworth, J. W. Ballad Soc. 1869.

Shirburn Ballads. Ed. Clarke, A. Oxford, 1907.