The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes (1907–21).
Volume IV. Prose and Poetry: Sir Thomas North to Michael Drayton.

XIV. The Beginnings of English Philosophy


Philosophical Works (Spedding’s arrangement)
i. Parts of the Instauratio Magna

Instauratio magna. 1620. (After two pages beginning “Franciscus de Verulamio sic cogitavit,” an epistle dedicatory to the king, preface, distributio operis and a page announcing “deest pars prima instaurationis, quae complectitur partitiones scientiarum,” there follows a second title-page: Pars Secunda Operis, quae dicitur Novum Organum, sive Indicia Vera de interpretatione naturae. The same volume also contains: Parasceve ad Historiam Naturalem et Experimentalem.)

Opera. Tomus primus. Qui continet De Augmentis Scientiarum libros IX. 1623. (The second title is: de Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum libri IX.)

Historia Naturalis et Experimentalis ad condendam philosophiam: sive Phaenomena Universi: quae est Instaurationis Magnae pars tertia. 1622. (This volume contains Historia Ventorum, also titles and “aditus” to five other Historiae, namely, Densi et Rari, Gravis et Levis, Sympathiae et Antipathiae Rerum, Sulphuris Mercurii et Salis, Vitae et Mortis.)

Historia Vitae et Mortis. Sive Titulus Secundus in Historia Naturali et Experimentali ad condendam philosophiam: quae est Instaurationis Magnae pars tertia. 1623.

Historia Densi et Rari (1658).

Sylva Sylvarum: or A Natural History. In ten centuries. Written by the Right Honourable Francis Lord Verulam, Viscount St. Alban. Published after the author’s death by William Rawley. 1627.

Scala intellectus, sive Filum Labyrinthi (1653) (a preface intended for the fourth part of the Instauratio).

Prodromi, sive Anticipationes Philosophiae Secundae (1653) (a preface intended for the fifth part of the Instauratio).

ii. Works connected with the Instauratio, but not intended to be included in it

Cogitationes de natura rerum (1653).

De Fluxu et Refluxu Maris (1653).

De Principiis atque Originibus secundum Fabulas Cupidinis et Coeli (1653).

New Atlantis; a work unfinished. (First published by Rawley at the end of the volume containing Sylva Sylvarum in 1627.)

iii. Works originally designed for parts of the Instauratio, but superseded or abandoned

Cogitationes de Scientia Humana. (A series of fragments of uncertain date, first published by Spedding (Bacon’s Works, vol. III), who supplied the title.)

Valerius Terminus of the Interpretation of Nature; with the annotations of Hermes Stella (1734).

The Twoo Bookes of Francis Bacon of the Proficience and Advancement of Learning Divine and Humane. 1605.

Filum Labyrinthi, sive Formula Inquisitionis (1734) (little else than an English version of the Cogitata et Visa).

De Interpretatione Naturae Prooemium (1653).

Temporis Partus Masculus sive Instauratio Magna Imperii Humani in Universum (1653).

Partis Instaurationis Secundae Delineatio et Argumentum, et Redargutio philosophiarum (1653, in part).

Cogitata et Visa: de Interpretatione Naturae, sive de Scientia Operativa (1653).

Filum Labyrinthi; sive Inquisitio Legitima de Motu (1653).

Sequela Cartarum; sive Inquisitio Legitima de Calore et Frigore (1734).

Historia et Inquisitio Prima de Sono et Auditu, et de Forma Soni et Latente Processu Soni; sive Sylva Soni et Auditus (1658).

Phaenomena Universi; sive Historia Naturalis ad Condendam Philosophiam (1653).

Descriptio Globi Intellectualis et Thema Coeli (1653).

De Interpretatione Naturae Sententiae XII (1653).

Aphorismi et Consilia (1653).

Literary Works

Essayes. Religious Meditations. Places of perswasion and disswasion. Seene and allowed. 1597. (There are ten essays in this volume. The Religious Meditations are in Latin and are entitled Meditationes Sacrae; the Places of perswasion and disswasion are in English and are entitled Coulers of Good and Evill; a fragment. Reprinted in 1598, 1604 and 1606.)

The Essaies of Sir Francis Bacon Knight the kings solliciter generall. 1612. (This volume contains essays only—thirty-eight in number, twenty-nine of them new, and the rest corrected and enlarged.)

The Essayes or Counsels, Civill and Morall, of Francis Lo. Verulam, Viscount St. Alban. 1625. (This volume contains fifty-eight essays, twenty of them being new and most of the rest altered and enlarged.)

De Sapientia Veterum Liber, ad inclytam academiam Cantabrigiensem. 1609.

The Historie of the Raigne of King Henry the Seventh. 1622.

Advertisement touching an Holy Warre. Written in the year 1622. 1629.

Of the True Greatness of the Kingdom of Britain (1734).

Apothegmes new and old. 1625.

Promus of Formularies and Elegancies (begun 1594, published 1882, and in part by Spedding, vol. VII).

Translation of Certaine Psalmes into English Verse. 1625.

Professional Works

Maxims of the Law (written about 1597; first printed 1630).

Reading on the Statute of Uses (read at Gray’s Inn in the Lent vacation, 1600; first printed in 1642).

The Arguments of Law of Sir Francis Bacon, Knight, The King’s Solicitor-General, in certain great and difficult cases. (Revised by Bacon in 1616, but not published by him; first printed by Blackbourne in 1730.)

Argument in Chudleigh’s Case. (Easter Term, 1594.) (Translated from Law French and printed in Spedding’s edition, vol. VII.)

The Argument of Sir Francis Bacon, Knight, His Majesty’s Solicitor-general, in the Case of the Post-Nati of Scotland. (Delivered before Easter Term, 1608; first printed in 1641.)

The Argument of Sir Francis Bacon, Knight, Attorney-General in the King’s Bench, in the Case De Rege Inconsulto. (Delivered Jan. 25, 1616; first printed in Collectanea Jurid.)

A Preparation towards the Union of Laws.

Occasional Writings (a selection)

An Advertisement touching the Controversies of the Church of England (written 1589; first published as pamphlet, 1640).

A Declaration of the Practices and Treasons attempted and committed by Robert, late Earle of Essex. 1601.

A Brief Discourse touching the Happy Union of the Kingdoms of England and Scotland (written 1603).

Certain Considerations touching the better Pacification and Edification of the Church of England (written 1603).

Sir Francis Bacon his Apologie, in certaine imputations concerning the late Earle of Essex. 1604.

A Proposition to His Majesty … touching the Compiling and Amendment of the Laws of England (written 1616, first published 1653).


  • 1. Collections chiefly of works unpublished in his life-time:
  • (a) Collected by Rawley, W.:—Certaine Miscellany works. 1629. Operum moralium et civilium tomus primus. 1638. Resuscitatio. 1657. Opuscula varia posthuma. 1658.
  • (b) Collected by Gruter, I.:—Scripta in naturali et universali philosophia. Amsterdam, 1653.
  • (c) Collected by Stephens, R.:—Letters written during the reign of King James. 1702. Letters and Remains. 1734.
  • 2. Editions of collected works; by Schönwetter and Gruter, Frankfort, 1665; Mallet, 4 vols., 1740; Stephens, Locker and Birch, 5 vols., 1765; Lasalle, A., French translation, 15 vols., Dijon, 1801–4; Montagu, 16 vols., 1825–36; Spedding, J., Ellis, R. L. and Heath, D. D., 14 vols., 1857–74. In the last-named edition, vols. I–III contain the Philosophical Works, vols. IV–V translations of the same, vols. VI–VII Literary and Professional Works, vols. VIII–XIV the Letters and the Life. The Philosophical Works were edited in one volume by Robertson, J. M., 1905.
  • 3. Among editions of separate works mention may be made of the editions of the Advancement of Learning by Wright, W. A., Oxford, 1869, 5th ed., 1900, and by Case, T., Oxford, 1906, and of the Novum Organum by Fowler, T., Oxford, 1878, 2nd ed., 1889.

  • Works on Bacon’s Life and Philosophy

    Abbott, E. A. Bacon and Essex. 1877.

    —— Bacon: an account of his life and works. 1885.

    Adamson, R. In Encyclopaedia Britannica, ninth ed.

    Blunt, H. W. Bacon’s Method. Proc. of Aristotelian Soc. N. S. IV.

    Cassirer, E. In his Erkenntnisproblem in der Phil. u. Wissenschaft.

    Church, R. W. Bacon. 1884.

    Ellis, R. L. General Preface to the Philosophical Works, Bacon’s Works, vol. I. 1857.

    Fisher, Kuno. Francis Bacon und seine Schule. Entwicklungsgeschichte der Erfahrungsphilosophie. Vol. X. of the Jubiläumsausgabe of his Gesch. d. neuern Phil. Heidelberg, 1904. (Third revised edition of a work originally published in 1856, translated into English by Oxenford, J., 1857.)

    Fowler, T. Bacon. 1881.

    Gardiner, S. R. In D. of N. B.

    Hallam, H. Introduction to the Literature of Europe. Chap. XX.

    Lee, Sidney. Great Englishmen of the Sixteenth Century. 1904.

    Liebig, J. v. Ueber Francis Bacon und die Methode der Naturforschung. Munich, 1863.

    Macaulay, T. B. In Edinburgh Review, July, 1837.

    Nichol, J. Bacon. Edinburgh, 1888–9.

    Rémusat, C. de. Bacon: sa vie, son temps, sa philosophie, et son influence jusqu’à nos jours. Paris, 1857.

    Whewell, W. Philosophy of Discovery. Chaps. XV, XVI. 1860.

    [See, also, Craik’s English Literature, 1869, vol. 1, p. 617.]


    Treatise of moral Phylosophie, contayning the Sayinges of the Wyse. 1547.


    A Discourse of the Felicitie of Man: or his Summum bonum. 1598.


    Philosophia libera, triplici exercitationum Decade proposita, in qua adversus hujus temporia Philosophos dogmata quaedam nova discutiuntur. Ed. secunda. Oxford, 1622. (1st ed. 1621.)


    Summa veterum interpretum in universam Dialecticam Aristotelis. 1584. Oxford, 1592. Frankfort, 1593.

    Speculum moralium questionum in universam ethicen Aristotelis. Oxford, 1585. Frankfort, 1589.

    Sphaera civitatis. Oxford, 1588.

    Reflexus speculi moralis. Oxford, 1596.

    Thesaurus Oeconomicae. Oxford, 1597.

    Lapis philosophicus. Oxford, 1599. London, 1612.

    Ancilla philosophiae. Oxford, 1599.


    Theoria analytica, Viam ad Monarchiam Scientiarum demonstrans, totius Philosophiae et reliquarum Scientiarum, necnon primorum postremorumque Philosophorum mysteria arcanaque dogmata enucleans. 1579.

    De duplici methodo libri duo, unicam P. Rami methodum refutantes. 1580.

    Everardi Digbei Cantabrigiensis admonitioni Francisci Mildapetti … responsio. 1580.

    De Arte Natandi. 1587. [Believed to be the earliest treatise on swimming published in England; trans. Middleton, C., 1595.]

    Cf. Freudenthal, J., Beiträge zur Geschichte der englischen Philosophie (two articles) in Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie, vol. iv, 1891.


    An Almanack and Prognostication. 1560.

    Antiprognosticon contra inutiles astrologorum praedictiones. 1560. (English trans., 1560.)

    A Goodly Gallerie, with a most pleasant prospect into the garden of naturall contemplation, to behold the naturall causes of all kynde of Meteors. 1563.

    And other works, chiefly theological.


    Utriusque Cosmi majoris scilicet et minoris, Metaphysica, physica atque technica Historia. Frankfort, 1617.

    Clavis Philosophiae et Alchymiae. Frankfort, 1633.

    Medicina Catholica, seu mysticum artis medicandi sacrarum (Integrum Morborum mysterium). Frankfort, 1629.

    Philosophia Moysaica. Gouda, 1638 (in English, 1659).


    Guilielmi Gilberti Colcestrensis, medici londinensis, de Magnete, magneticisque corporibus, et de magno magnete tellure; Physiologia nova, plurimis et argumentis, et experimentis demonstrata. 1600.

    De Mundo nostro Sublunari Philosophia Nova. Opus posthumum. Amsterdam, 1651.


    De Veritate, prout distinguitur a Revelatione, a Verisimili, a Possibili, et a Falso. Paris. 1624.

    De Religione Gentilium, errorumque apud eos causis. Amsterdam, 1663. Eng. transl. 1709.

    (For the non-philosophical works, see Vol. VII of the present work.)

    Works on Herbert’s Philosophy

    Güttler, C. Lord Herbert von Cherbury. 1897.

    Lechler, G. V. Geschichte des englischen Deismus. 1841.

    Rémusat, C. de. Lord Herbert de Cherbury. 1874.

    Sorley, W. R. In Mind, October, 1894.


    A Brief and True Report of the new-found Land of Virginia. 1588.

    Artis Analyticae Praxis ad aequationes algebraicas resolvendas. 1631.


    Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Descriptio. Edinburgh, 1614. (English trans., 1616.)

    Rabdologiae seu numerationis per virgulas libri duo. Edinburgh, 1617.

    Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Constructio. Edinburgh, 1619.


    The Newe Attractive, containing a short discourse of the Magnes or Lodestone. 1581.


    Institutionum dialecticarum libri quatuor. Antwerp, 1589. Oxford, 1594, 1602.


    Francisci Mildapetti Navarreni ad Everardum Digbeium Anglum Admonitio de unica P. Rami Methodo rejectis ceteris retinenda. 1580.

    Pro Mildapetti de unica methodo defensione contra Diplodophilum, commentatio Gulielmi Tempelli, e Regio Collegio Cantabrigiensis. Huc accessit nonnullarum e physicis et ethicis quaestionum explicatio, una cum epistola de Rami dialectica ad Joannem Piscatorem Argentinensem. 1581. Frankfort, 1584.

    P. Rami Dialecticae libri duo, scholiis G. Tempelli Cantabrigiensis illustrati. Cambridge, 1584. Frankfort, 1591, 1595.

    Jacobi Martini Scoti Dunkeldensis philosophiae professoris publici, in Academia Taurinensi, de prima simplicium et concretorum corporum generatione disputatio. Cambridge, 1584. Frankfort, 1591, 1595. (Martin’s book was first published at Turin, 1577.)

    Cf. Freudenthal, J., Beiträge zur Geschichte der englischen Philosophie in Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie, Vol. V, 1892.