The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes (1907–21).
Volume II. The End of the Middle Ages.

XVIII. Political and Religious Verse to the Close of the Fifteenth Century—Final Words



As in the case of the bibliography to Chap. XVII, Vol. I, a few works on the social and political history of England during the Middle Ages are included in the following bibliography; and advantage has been taken of the opportunity afforded by a concluding chapter to add a few notes on books and writers not specifically dealt with elsewhere. References to other histories of English literature have been added in cases where fuller details are given than has been either possible or deemed desirable in this work.

In addition to the general bibliographies mentioned on p. 419, vol. 1, W. Swan Sonnenschein’s Best Books, 1891, and Reader’s Guide to Contemporary Literature, 1895, may be mentioned as very useful aids, and, in their respective spheres, G. K. Fortescue’s Index of Printed Books added to the British Museum during the past 25 years, and C. Sayle’s Early English Printed Books in the University Library, Cambridge (1475–1640), 4 vols, Cambridge, 1900–7, are invaluable. The catalogue of the London Library, 1903, and its various supplements, will also be found useful.

The Appendix volume to W. T. Lowndes’s Bibliographer’s Manual, compiled by H. G. Bohn (1864), contains a useful list of the publications of the Roxburghe, Bannatyne and Maitland Clubs, Surtees Society, Abbotsford Club, Camden Society, Spalding Club, Irish Archaeological, Parker, Percy, Aelfric, Chetham, Philobiblon, Caxton, English Historical and Ossianic Societies, Warton Club, and other literary, learned and scientific societies; of books printed at private presses (Auchinleck, Lee Priory, etc.); and of privately printed at series (J. Payne Collier, Halliwell, Maidment, Turnbull, Russell Smith, etc.). A revised edition of Lowndes, brought up to date, would be a very great boon indeed to all workers in English literature.

English and Latin Writers and Texts

Adam of Usk (fl. 1400), chronicler (1377–1404). Ed. Thompson, E. M. 1876.

Audelay, John. Poems: a specimen of the Shropshire dialect in the 15th cent. Ed. Halliwell, J. O. Percy Society. 1844.

Baker, Geoffrey (fl. 1350). For Baker’s chronicles and for Sir Thomas de la More, see Stubbs, W., Chronicles of Edw. I and II, Rolls Series, 1882–3; and ed. Thompson, E. M., Oxford, 1889.

Baston, Robert (fl. 1300), scholar of Oxford and poet, of whom it is asserted that, when captured by Robert Bruce, he was obliged to buy his release by composing poems of exultation over the defeat of the English. Cott MS, TitusA. XX.

Berners, Dame Juliana. Cf. Le Venery de Twenty, Reliq. Ant., vol. 1, p. 149, and also The Booke of Hawkyng, Rel. Ant., vol. 1. p. 293.

Blaneforde, Henry (fl. 1330), chronicler. Ed. Riley, H. T., in Chronica Monast. S. Albani. Rolls Series. 1866.

Brampton, T. Paraphrase on the Seven Penitential Psalms (1414). Percy Society. 1842.

Elmham, Thomas (d. 1440?), chronicler of St. Augustine’s monastery, Canterbury, and biographer of Henry V. Ed. Hardwick, C. Rolls Series. 1858. Memorials of Henry V. Ed. Cole, C. A. Rolls Series. 1858. See also ed. Hearn, T., Oxford, 1727.

Fabyan, Robert (d. 1513), a careful will-maker, if a poor chronicler, whose Concordance of Histories, printed by Pynson, 1516, ed. Ellis, H., 1811, is not without its value with respect to the history of London. See Warton, T., Hist. Eng. Poet., vol. II (1840), sect. XXVII.

Gascoigne, T. (1403–58). Dictionarium Theologicum. Extracts printed by J. E. Thorold Rogers, Oxford, 1881, illustrative of matters concerning church and state,

Geoffrey the Grammarian, or Starkey (fl, 1440), author of an English-Latin dictionary, Promptorium Parvulorum or Promptorium Parvulorum Clericorum. A work of much importance with respect to 15th cent. East Anglian English. Printed by Pynson, Wynkyn de Worde, etc. Ed. Way, A. 3 vols. Camden Soc. 1843–65. The E.E.T.S. has an edition in hand. A Hortus, or Latin-English dictionary, printed by Wynkyn de Worde in 1500, may be based on another of Starkey’s works.

Grey, Wm. (d. 1478), scholar of Oxford, bishop of Ely, humanist and collector of books, many of which are still among the treasures of Balliol. See vol. III of the present work, chapter 1.

Hardyng, John (1378–1465?), chronicler. Of the literary merit of Hardyng’s English Chronicle in Metre fro the first Begynning of Englande unto the Reigne of Edwarde the Fourth (printed by Grafton in 1543 and reprinted by Ellis, H., in 1812), little can be said save that, though he “poisoned the wells” by manufacturing certain of his documents, he carried on the work of the earlier chroniclers. See Palgrave, F., Documents and records illustrating the history of Scotland, 1837.

Humphrey, duke of Gloucester (1391–1447). The “good duke Humphrey,” a lover of books and a beneficent disposer of them, patron and friend of many scholars, of Ashley, Capgrave, Lydgate, Pecock, Whethamstede, “kept such a house as was never yet kept in England” (Latimer), gave his books to a university which still cherishes his name in its library and should be remembered among the “people of importance” in the 15th century. The part taken by him in the foundation of libraries will be considered in a later section of the present work devoted to book-collections. See Ten Brink, B., Hist. Eng. Lit., vol. II, Eng. trans., 1901, pp. 310 ff. and 319 ff.; Warton, T., History of English Poetry, 1840, vol. II, sect. XX, pp. 264 ff; and Pauli, R., Pictures of Old England (Eng. trans.), 1861.

Ingulph (d. 1109), abbot of Crowland or Croyland. For the fourteenth and fifteenth century chronicle erroneously associated with his name, see Savile, H., Scriptores post Bedam, 1596; Riley, H.T., 1854; Liebermann, F., Über ostenglische Geschichtsquellen des 12, 13, 14 Jahrhunderts besonders den falschen Ingulf (N. Archiv f. ält. deutsche Gesch.-Kunde, Bd. XVIII, Hanover, 1892); Birch, W. de G., Chronicle of Croyland Abbey, 1883; Searle, W. G., Ingulf and the Historia Croylandensis, Camb. Antiq. Soc., 1894.

John of Bury (fl. 1460), Cambridge scholar and opponent of Pecock. MS. of Gladius Salomonis in Bodleian, extracts in Babington’s ed. of Pecock’s Repressor.

Knighton (or Cnitthon), Henry (fl. 1363), chronicler (from the days of Edgar to 1366). The continuation of Knighton’s work, by another hand, is valuable in respect of Wyclif and the peasants’ revolt. Ed. Lumby, J.R. Rolls Series. 1889–95.

Lanercost Chronicle (1201–1346), useful for the history of the Border, etc. Ed. Stevenson, J. 1839. Imbedded in this chronicle, under date 1244, is the English couplet.
  • Wille Gris, Wille Gris,
  • Thinche twat you was, and qwat you es,

  • which refers to the Norfolk peasant boy who went to seek his fortune possessing naught but a little pig. The swineboy married a rich widow and he kept his former state before him by a picture of himself and his pig inscribed as above. See Craik, G. L., Hist. of Eng. Lit., vol. 1, 1869, p. 226; and Chronicon de Lanercost, p. 52.

    Lauder, William. Minor Poems. Ed. Furnivall, F. J. E.E.T.S. XLI, 1870. Litchfield, Wm. (d. 1447), poet and preacher. His poems are among the Caius MSS., No. 174, Cambridge. He is said to have written over 3000 sermons.

    Littleton, Sir Thomas (1402–81), author of a work on Tenures, in law-French, of which it has been said that “probably no legal treatise ever combined so much of the substance with so little of the show of learning, or so happily avoided pedantic formalism without forfeiting precision of statement” (J. M. Rigg, in D. of N. B.). Littleton’s book will be further dealt with in a later section of the present work dealing with legal literature. MSS. in Cambridge University library, Mm. 5. 2, Ee. 1. 2, Dd. 11. 60; first edition published by Lettou and Machlinia; later, by Pynson, c. 1495 ff. See ed. Tomlins, T. E., 1841. Littleton’s will thrown intersting light on the contents of his library.

    Losinga, Herbert de (1054?–1119), first bishop of Norwich and founder of Norwich cathedral. For his sermons, printed from a Cambridge MS., see Goulburn, E. M. and Symonds, H., Life, Letters and Sermons of Bp H. de L., 2 vols., 1878. The letters throw much light on current monastic life and on educational method.

    Lyndwood, William (1375?–1446), Cambridge and Oxford scholar, canonist and author of Constitutiones Provinciales Ecclesiae Anglicanae, printed by Wynkyn de Worde, c. 1496. There was an earlier Oxford printed edition, and a later Oxford edition is the folio of 1679.

    Metham, John. Works. Ed. Craig, H. E.E.T.S. 1906.

    Mirk, John (fl. 1403?). Festial (sermons, explaining feast days). Ed. Erbe, T. E.E.T.S. 1905. Printed by Caxton, 1483.

    —— Manuale Sacerdotum. For MSS., see Miss Bateson’s article in D. of N. B.

    —— Duties of a Parish Priest. Ed. Peacock, E. E.E.T.S. 1868. “This poem, which Mirk says he translated from the Latin Pars Oculi, is neither a versified translation of John de Burgh’s Pupilla Oculi (a dictionary of theological subjects alphabetically arranged), nor of Mirk’s Manual, as has been suggested, but of the Pupilla Oculi by William de Pagula.” M. Bateson.

    Murimuth, Adam (1275?–1347), scholar of Oxford and chronicler of the period 1303–47. Ed. Thompson, E. M. Rolls Series. 1889.

    Osbern, a learned monk of Gloucester. For his “immense etymological Latin dictionary,” see Bateson, M., Medieval England, p. 242.

    Otterbourne, Thomas (fl. 1400), chronicler (from the early history of England to 1420). MS. Harl. 3643. See T. Hearne’s Duo rerum Angl. script., Oxford, 1732.

    Ratis Raving and other moral and religious pieces, in prose and verse. Ed. from Camb. MS., Kk. 1. 5, by Lumby, J. R. 1870. E.E.T.S. XLIII.

    Richard of St. Victor (d. 1173?), mystic and philosopher. Of Scotch birth, but whose life was spent in the Parisian abbey of St. Victor. For a list of his works see the article by Kingsford, C. L., in D. of N. B. See also Migne, J. P., Pat. Latina, vol. CXCVI.

    Robert of Avesbury (fl. 1350), military chronicler of the deeds of Edw. III to 1356. Ed. Thompson, E. M. Rolls Series. 1889.

    Rous or Ross, John (1411?–1491), Oxford scholar and antiquary, author of Historia Regum Angliae (Cott. MS. Vesp. A. XII: see ed. Hearne, T., 1745), from the beginning to 1486. While his history is of little value, the designs which adorn his life of Richard Beauchamp, earl of Warwick (Cott. MS. Jul. E. IV), are of some interest.

    Scogan, Henry (1361?–1407), poet and friend of Chaucer. He must not be confused with the somewhat mythical John Scogan (fl. 1480?), court jester to Edw. IV, whose jests were collected in the 16th cent.

    Stanbridge, John (1463–1510), scholar of Oxford and author of Vocabula, Vulgaria, etc., school books printed by Wynkyn de Word early in the 16th cent. See Hazlitt, W. C., Schools, School books and Schoolmasters, 1888.

    Swineshead, Richard (fl. 1350), scholar of Oxford and mathematician. See Brodrick, G. C., Memorials of Merton, Oxford Hist. Soc., 1885.

    Thomas of Burton. Chronica monast. de Melsa usque ad a. 1396, etc. Ed. Bond, E. A. 3 vols. Rolls Series. 1866–8.

    Thorne, William (fl. 1397), author of an important chronicle of the abbots of St. Augustine’s, Canterbury. Ed. Twysden, Sir R. Hist. Anglicanae script. X. 1652. (Twysden includes Simeon Dunelm, Joh Hagustald, Richardus Hagustald, Ailredus Rievall, Radulphus de Diceto, Joh Brompton Jornall, Gervasius Doroborn, T. Stubbs, G. Thorn, H. Knighton.)

    Tiptoft, John, earl of Worcester (1427?–70), patron of scholars, purchaser of books, translator of Cicero and as cruel a man as any of the tyrants of the Italian renascence. Among the scholars whom John Tiptoft patronised, John Phreas (d. 1465) must not be forgotten. He was one of the remarkable company of students who sought knowledge in Italy, before the revival of letters made itself felt in England. And an earlier patron of Phreas was William Grey of Balliol, bishop of Ely, whose love of classical learning had taken him abroad to procure books and whose college and cathedral benefited largely through his generous gifts.

    Walsingham, Thomas (d. 1422), chronicler. Chronicler Angliae (1328–88), ed. Thompson, E. M., 1874; Gesta Abbatum 793–1411, Rolls Series, 3 vols., 1867 ff.; Historia Anglicana (1272–1422), ed. Riley, H. T., Rolls Series, 2 vols., 1863; Ypodigma Neustriae, ed. Riley, H. T., Rolls Series, 1876. As indicated in previous chapters, Walsingham is of chief importance in connection with Wyclif and the peasants’ revolt. He is an adverse witness in the matter of the Lollards. The relation of the above chronicles to each other and to other chronicles and MSS. is discussed by Leadam, I. S., in the D. of N. B.

    Walton, John (fl. 1410), translator (in verse) of Boethius, printed in 1525 as “The boke of Comfort, etc.” For MSS. see Pollard. A. F., in D. of N. B. See also Warton, T., Hist. Eng. Poet., vol. II. sect. XX (1840), pp. 255–6.

    Walter of Henley’s Husbandry, etc. Ed. Lamond, E. R. Hist. Soc. 1890.

    Wey, The Itineraries of William (1407?–76), Fellow of Eton College, to Jerusalem, 1458–62, etc. Roxburghe Club. 1857.

    William of Drogheda (d. 1245?), scholar of Oxford and canonist. MSS. in Caius College, Cambridge, etc.

    William of Ramsey (fl. 1219), monk of Crowland, poet and writer of saints’ lives. His Guthlac poem is in the Cambridge University library (Dd. xi. 78).

    Woodville, A. For the “balet” or virelai on fickle fortune, composed by the ill-fated Anthony Woodville, second earl Rivers (1442?–83), in Pontefract castle, shortly before he was executed, see Percy’s Reliques, Rous’s chronicle, ed. Hearne, and Ritson’s Ancient Songs, ed. Hazlitt, W. C., p. 149.

    Worcester, Wm. (1415–82?), scholar of Oxford, traveller, chronicler and secretary of Sir John Fastolf (see Paston Letters). For a complete list of his writings, of which an Itinerarium, ed. Nasmith, J., 1778, is, perhaps, the most important, see the article by Tait, J., in D. of N. B.

    Agincourt, poems on. See the Percy Reliques, 3rd ser. bk I; Warton [char] XX; etc.

    Anecdota Literaria. Ed. Wright, T. 1844. Contains, in addition to items previously discussed, fabliaux (The Miller of Abington, etc.), Goliardic poems, poems on the Different Classes of Society and miscellaneous pieces such as Ragman Roll.

    Babees Book, The (c. 1475), Aristotle’s ABC (c. 1430), Urbanitatis (c. 1460), Stans Puer ad Mensam, The Lytille Childrenes Lytil Boke (c. 1480). The Bokes of Nurture of Hugh Rhodes (temp. Henry VIII) and John Russell (c. 1460–70), Wynkyn de Worde’s Boke of Keruynge (1513), The Booke of Demeanor (1619), The Boke of Curtasye (1430–40) (see also Breul, K., Eng. Stud. IX, 51 ff.), Seager’s Schoole of Vertue (1557), etc., etc., with some French and Latin poems on like subjects, and some Forewords on Education in Early England. Ed. Furnivall, F. J. 1868. The volume also contains some of Richard Hill’s transcriptions, in one of which the poet speaks sympathetically of the schoolboy of his time (c. 1500):
  • I wold ffayn be a clarke;
  • but yet hit is a strange werke;
  • the byrchyn twyggis be so sharpe,
  • hit makith me have a faynt harte.
  • what avaylith it to me thowgh I say nay?
  • Songs, Carols and other Miscellaneous Poems from the Balliol MS. 354 (Richard Hill’s Commonplace Book) has just been published (1908) by the E.E.T.S., ed. Dyboski, R.

    Barnwell Priory. Liber Memorandorum Ecclesie de Bernewelle. Ed. Clark, J. W., with an introduction by Maitland, F. W. 1907.

    Camden Society. 1838 ff. In addition to the volumes referred to elsewhere under specific heads, may be mentioned the Plumpton correspondence, ed. Stapleton, T. (Letters, chiefly domestic, temp. Edw. IV–Henry VIII), 1839; Anecdotes and Traditions, illustrative of Early English History and Literature, ed. Thoms, W. J., 1839; A Contemporary narrative of the proceedings against Dame Alice Kyteler, prosecuted for Sorcery 1324, ed. Wright, T., 1843; A Relation… of the Isle of England c. 1500, trans. from the Italian by Sneyd, C. A., 1847; and Letters of Queen Margaret of Anjou, etc., ed. Monro, C., 1863.

    Cato. See bibliography to chap. VIII under Burgh. Also Warton’s Hist. Eng. Poetry, 1840, [char] XXVII.

    Cookery Books, Two 15th cent. c. 1430 and 1450. Ed. Austin, T. E.E.T.S 1888. For other books of cookery, important for the light they cast on manners and social life, see The forme of Cury, a roll of ancient English cookery compiled c. 1390, by the master cook of king Richard II, ed. Pegge, S., 1780; Liber Cure Cocorum, a cookery book in verse, c. 1440, ed. Morris, R., Phil. Soc., 1862; A noble Boke off Cookry (16th cent.), 1882; Warner, R., Antiquitates Culinariae, 1791; and an article in the Quarterly Review, Jan., 1894.

    Early English Text Society. Practically all the publications of both the Original and the Extra Series are referred to under specific heads. The list of works mentioned in the current prospectus as awaiting publication as soon as funds permit, and of MSS. and old books which need copying or re-editing, includes, inter alia, the following: Hampole’s unprinted works; Hereford’s Bible translation; Lydgate’s unprinted works; early treatises on music; Skelton’s englishing of Diodorus Siculus; T. Breus’s Passion of Christ, 1422; Lollard theological treatises; Hylton’s Ladder of Perfection; John Watton’s englished Speculum Christiani; Stevyn Scrope’s Doctryne and Wysedome of the Auncyent Philosophers, 1450; Alain Chartier’s Quadrilogue englished; Shirley’s Book of Gode Maners; The Court of Sapience; Wynkyn de Worde’s English and French Phrase-book; the Craft of Nombrynge, the earliest English treatise on Arithmetic; the Book of the Foundation of St. Bartholomew’s Hospital, c. 1425; Caxton’s Mirror of the World, etc., etc. It is to be hoped that the Society may soon be able to publish the above and many more texts urgently needed.

    Gy de Warewyke, Speculum. Ed. Morrill, G. L. E.E.T.S. Ex. Ser. LXXV. 1898.

    Hazlitt, W. C. (ed.). Remains of the Early Popular Poetry of England. 4 vols. 1864.

    A valuable collection of fabliaux, debates, tales in verse, etc. The first volume contains, among other poems, The King and the Barker, a “borde” of the King and Miller, or Rauf Coil[char]ear type, of a king’s adventures with one of his subjects; The Cokwolds Daunce, an Arthurian tale to which reference has already been made (Vol. I, p. 515); The Thrush and the Nightingale debate from the Digby MS., temp. Edw. I: “Somer is comen with love to toune”; Ragman Roll, a satire on women; The Debate of the Carpenter’s Tools; Colyn Blowbols Testament, cf. The Testament of Mr. Andro Kennedy, by Dunbar, referred to on p. 291 of the present volume; The Childe of Bristowe, one of the most beautiful of legends of filial devotion, a tale of self-sacrifice, to save a convetous father from the pains of purgatory, told with a direct simplicity that reveals the audience to which it was probably addressed. When everything of his father’s illgotten wealth has been restored, and whatsoever else is left of the inherited estate has been spent in alms and masses to relieve the pains suffered by his father as revealed to him in fortnightly visions, the “childe” goes in quest of more money still to the “maister” whose “prentys” in “Bristow” he is, to sell himself as a slave:
  • myn owne body y wil selle to the,
  • for ever to be thy lad,
  • and the tale ends as an unsophisticated audience would wish it to end; How the Wise Man taught his Son; How the Good Wife taught her Daughter; How a Merchande dyd hys Wyfe Betray, or a Penniworth of Wit (a tale of the testing of true and false love, c. 1335); A Mery Geste how the Plowman lerned his Pater Noster; the Lyfe of Roberte the Devyll, etc.

    Volume II contains: Piers of Fullham, or “vayne conseytes of folysche love undyr colour of fyscheng and fowlyng”; The Batayle of Egyngecourte; Adam Bel Clym of the Cloughe and Wyllyam of Cloudesle, a ballad of the greenwood (see p. 463 of the present volume); together with sundry other poems and The Nutbrowne Mayde.

    Volume III, among other pieces, contains The Debate and Stryfe Betweene Somer and Wynter; The Tale of the Basyn, a popular, coarse satire setting forth the unlucky adventures that happened to a priest and his paramour by means of an enchanted “basin”; A Mery Geste of the Frere and the Boye, printed “at London in Fletestrete at the sygne of the sonne” by Wynkyn de Worde, about the year 1512 (Cambridge facsimile, including the delightful woodcut, 1907), an amusing tale of enchantment, popular in many forms, of “a good sturdy laddie,” who became possessed of a pipe the music of which caused beast and man to dance, even the “frere” set on by Jack’s “stepmoder” to beat him (cf. the version in the Percy Folio MS., ed. Furnivall and Hales); The Turnament of Totenham (referred to in Vol. I of the present work, p. 409); A Mery Jest of Dane Hew Monk of Leicestre, and how he was foure times slain and once hanged; the Parlament of Byrdes; The smyth whych that forged hym a new dame, a tale of magic, relating how a proud smith, emulating a miracle of the Lord, who had re-made his “old beldame” into a “byrd bright,” so that she was
  • loveseme of chere,
  • Bright as blosome on brere,
  • None in Egypt her pere,
  • endeavoured to perform the same operation in the case of his wife. It is a rough, comic tale, suited for a popular audience.

    And volume IV contains The Hye Way to the Spyttel Hous and other reprints of 16th century “bokes,” to which reference will be made in Volume III of this work.

    Hunting of the Hare. A rough and tumble tale. See Weber, H., Metrical Romances of the XIII, XIV and XV cent., 3 vols., Edinburgh, 1810.

    Husbondrie, Palladius on. Trans. c. 1420. Ed. Lodge, B. and Herrtage, S. J. E.E.T.S. LII–LXII. 1872–9.

    Hymns to the Virgin and Christ, The Parliament of Devils, etc. Lambeth MS. 853, c. 1430. Ed. Furnivall, F. J. E.E.T.S. 1867. Contains Stans Puer ad Mensam, How the Good Wife taught her Daughter, How the Wise Man taught his Son, The Mirror of the Periods of Man’s Life, etc.

    Kildare, Satire on the people of. (1308.) See Reliquiae Antiquae, II, 174 ff., and Heuser, W., Die Kildare-Gedichte, Bonn, 1904. An earlier work of Irish interest is Dermot and the Earl (c. 1170), ed. Orpen, G. H., Oxford, 1892.

    Lollards. In addition to the poems mentioned in the bibliography to Chap, II, see the satire in Ritson’s Ancient Songs, ed. Hazlitt, p. 104.

    Miracle Plays, Sermon agst. See Reliquiae Antiquae, II, 42 ff., and Mätzner, E., Altengl. Sprachproben, II, 222.

    Miscellanies, Early English, in prose and verse,…15th cent. Ed. Halliwell. J. O. 1855. (Contains The Frair and the Boy, the Vision of Philibert regarding the Body and the Soul, Earth upon Earth (see Fiedler, H. G., Mod. Lang. Rev., April 1908), a schorte tretice for a mane to knowe wyche tyme of the [char]ere hit is best to graffe or to plante treyus, the crafte of the lymnynge of bokys, the “mornyng” of a hunted hare, etc., etc.)

    Percy Society, 1840 ff. Among the volumes not referred to elsewhere under specific heads may be mentioned The Payne and Sorowe of Evyll Maryage, in verse, printed by Wynkyn de Worde 1509, ed. Collier, J. P., 1840; The Boke of Curtasye … poem, illustrative of the domestic manners of the 15th cent., ed. Halliwell, J. O., 1841; Paraphrase on the Seven Penitential Psalms, in English metre, 15th cent., ed. Black, W. H. 1842; Satirical Songs and Poems on Costume, 13th to 19th cent., ed. Fairholt, F. W., 1849; and A Poem on the times of Edward II from a MS. in the library of St. Peter’s College, Cambridge, ed. Hardwick, C., 1849.

    Political and other Poems (26) from Digby MS. 102, etc. Ed. Kail, J. E.E.T.S. 1904.

    Political, Religious and Love Poems. Ed. Furnivall, F. J. E.E.T.S. 1866. Re-edited 1903. Contains, among other things to which reference has already been made, a sketch of the metrical romance of Amoryus and Cleopes, by John Metham of Norwich, scholar of Cambridge 1448–9; and a poem by Henry Baradoun, c. 1483, of a wastrel’s life, from which the following stanza may be quoted as a sample:
  • In the courte, is many noble Roome;
  • But god knowith, I can noon sochë cacche
  • ffrom a maister, I am be-come a grome,
  • And bonde mysilff to waytyng and to wacche;
  • With evere gadrin, I stonde behynde the hacche,
  • Gapyng and staryng wanderyng to and fro;
  • [char]hit for all this, no good can I cacche:
  • Thus am I prentice and servaunt unto woe.

  • Quinte Essence, The Book of. c. 1460–70. Ed. Furnivall, F. J. E.E.T.S. 1866.

    Robin Hood. See Sidney Lee’s article in D. of N. B.; Child, F. J., English and Scottish Popular Ballads, Boston, 1888; Hales, J. W., in Hales and Furnivall’s edition of the Percy Folio MS., 1867, and the ballads there printed; Ten Brink, B., Hist. Eng. Lit., Eng. trans., vol. II, 184 ff.; Ritson, J., Robin Hood: a Collection of all poems, etc., relating to him, 2 vols., 1795 ff.; Thoms, W. J., Early English Prose Romances, 1828 ff.; Wright, T., Essays on subjects connected with the Literature, Popular Superstitions and History of England in the Middle Ages, 2 vols., 1846, vol. II; Pollard, A. W., reprints Wynkyn de Worde’s A little geste of Robin Hood in his Fifteenth Century Poetry and Prose, 1903.

    For Fulk Fitzwarine see History of Fulk Fitzwarine, an outlawed baron, from a 13th cent. MS., with literal Eng. trans. and notes, ed. Wright, T., Warton Club, 1855; Wright, T., Essays as above; ed. Michel, F., Paris, 1834; and the recent trans. by Kemp-Welch, A., in the King’s Classics Series, 1904. See also Moland, L. and d;Hèricault, Ch., in Nouvelles fran¸oises en prose du XIV Se, Paris, 1858.

    On the interesting race of outlaws generally, see Jusserand, J. J., English Wayfaring Life in the Middle Ages, pp. 252 ff. In T. Wright’s Political Songs of England, Camden Soc., 1839, p. 231, there is a spirited “Outlaw’s Song of Traillebaston,” of the time of Edw: II, the last verse of which shows how the writer combined the arts of author and publisher in “le jolyf umbray” of the “vert bois de Belregard,”
  • En le bois de Belregard, oú vole le jay,
  • E chaunte russinole touz jours santz delay.
  • Cest rym fust fet al bois desouz un lorer,
  • Lé chaunte merle, russinole, e cyre l’esperver;
  • Escrit estoit en parchemyn pur mout remenbrer,
  • E gittè en haut chemyn, qe um le dust trover.

  • On the tale of the Eremyt and the Outlawe see Kaluza, M., Engl. Stud. XIV, 165–182.

    Rotuli Parliamentorum. Rolls of Parliament, comprising Petitions, Pleas, Proceedings of Parliament, 1278–1503. Ed. Strachey, J. 6 vols. 1767–77. Index vol. 1832.

    Roxburghe Club Books, 1812 ff. In addition to volumes referred to under specific heads, may be mentioned the volume of Manners and Household Expenses of England in the 13th and 15th cents. 1841; the Household Books of John, duke of Norfolk, and Thomas, earl of Surrey, 1481–90, ed. Collier, J. P., 1844; the Literary Remains of king Edward the Sixth, ed. Nichols, J. G., 2 vols., 1857–8; Deguileville, G., The pilgrimage of the lyf of the manhode, ed. Wright, W. A., 1869.

    St. Cecilia, The life of. From MS. Ashmole 43 and MS. Cotton Tib. E. VII. Ed. Lovewell, B. E. Yale Studies in English. 1898.

    Scotland, National MSS. of. Vol. II. 1870. For a letter from the earl of March to Henry IV of England, etc.

    Speculum Christiani. Printed by W. de Machlinia, attributed to John Watton. 1482–4?.

    Stacions of Rome, The. The Pilgrims Sea-voyage. Clene Maidenhod. Ed. Furnivall, F. J. E.E.T.S. 1867.

    Tales, An Alphabet of. An English 15th cent. trans. of Alphabetum Narrationum (B. M. Addit. MS.). Ed. Banks, Mrs. M. Macleod. 1904. Stories of deeds of saints, of miracles, of the punishments of the wicked and the rewards of the virtuous. 2 vols. E.E.T.S. CXXVI, CXXVII.

    Three Kings of Cologne, The. An Early English [prose 15th cent.] trans. of the Historia Trium Regum of John of Hildesheim. Ed. Horstmann, C. E.E.T.S. 1886.

    Three King’s Sons. Englisht from the French. c. 1500. Ed. Furnivall, F.J. 1895.

    Vision of the Monk of Evesham. A 15th century rendering from the Latin. Ed. Arber, E. 1861. For other examples of the popular vision literature of the Middle Ages, in addition to those mentioned in Vol. I of the present work ( recorded by Bede, etc.), see The Visions of Tundale ed. Turnbull, W. B., D.D., Edinburgh, 1843; Wager, A., Halle, 1893, which contains descriptions of the tortures of the damned of the “two- pence coloured” type.

    Wright’s Chaste Wife, The. c. 1462. Ed. Furnivall, F.J. E.E.T.S. 1865. A tale of chastity put to the proof.

    —— Addit. Analogs to. Clouston, W. A. E.E.T.S. 1886.

    Illustrative Writings, etc.

    Barnard, F. P. (ed.). Strongbow’s Conquest of Ireland. Eng. Hist. from Contemp. Writers Series. 1888.

    Bateson, M. Medieval England, 1066–1350. 1905. A scholarly and well illustrated book. See especially the chapter on Henry II, in which his court is compared with “that of a Medici at the time of the greatest intellectual revival,” and also the chapters on the church, education and learning.

    Black Death and Peasants’ Revolt. See Traill’s Social England, vol. II, and the bibliography to Chapters XVII, Vol. I, and I, Vol. II, of the present work.

    Bourne, H. R. Fox. English Merchants. 2 vols. 1866.

    Buckle, H. T. Introd. to the History of Civilisation in England. Ed. Robertson, J.M. 1904.

    Burton, J.H. History of Scotland, from Agricola’s invasion to 1688. 7 vols. Edinburgh. 1867–70.

    Comparetti, D. Virgilio nel medio evo. 2nd ed. 2 vols. Florence, 1896.

    Darmesteter, A. M. F. The end of the Middle Ages. 1889.

    De Vitry, Jacques. The Exempla, or illustrative stories from de V.’s Sermones Vulgares. Ed. Crane, T. F. Folklore Soc. 1890.

    Denton, W. England in the 15th cent. 1888.

    Depping, G. B. and Michel, F. Wayland Smith. 1847.

    Digby, K. H. Mores Catholici. 3 vols. 1831 ff.

    Dugdale, W. Monasticum Anglicanum. 8 vols. 1655 ff.

    Earle, J. English Plant Names from the 10th to the 15th centuries. Oxford. 1880.

    Fairholt, F. W. Costume in England … from the earliest period to the close of the 18th cent. 2nd ed. 1860.

    Furnivall, Dr. An English Miscellany presented to, in honour of his 75th birthday, Oxford, 1901. Contains, in addition to other items referred to elsewhere, papers on The Dictes and Sayings of the Philosophers (A. Brandl), The Gospel of Nicodemus and the York Mystery Plays (W. A. Craigie), The Origin of the Liturgical Drama (P. Butler), Old English Dialogue Literature (M. T. W. Forster), The Sister’s Son (F. B. Gummere), Rhetoric in the translation of Bede (J. M. Hart), Emendations to the text of Havelok (F. Holthausen), Pageants and Scaffolds Hye (J. J. Jusserand), Some English Plays and Players, 1220–1548 (A. F. Leach), Colour in the English and Scottish Ballads (W. E. Mead), Contributions to O. E. Literature, An Old English Homily on the Observance of Sunday, etc. (A. S. Napier), Three Footnotes, Barbour, Morte Arthure, etc. (G. Neilson), Amadas et Idoine (G. Paris), Beowulf and Watanabe-no-Tsuna (F. York Powell), John Audelay’s poem on the observance of Sunday (R. Priebsch), Andreas and Fata Apostolorum (W. W. Skeat), The Introduction of English as the vehicle of instruction in English Schools (John of Cornwall and Richard Pencrych) (W. H. Stevenson).

    Gairdner, J. The historical collections of a citizen of London in the 15th cent. (John Page’s poem on the siege of Rouen, Wm. Gregory’s chronicle of London, etc.). Camden Soc. 1876. (See also his edition of Three 15th century chronicles, in the same series, 1880.)

    —— Memorials of Henry VII, including B. Andrè’s life of Henry VII and poems, etc. Rolls Series, 1858.

    —— Letters and Papers illustrative of the reigns of Richard III and Henry VII. 2 vols. Rolls Series. 1861–3.

    Garnett, R. English Literature, an illustrated record. Vol. I. 1903. Contains an admirable selection of specimens of MSS., old prints and other illustrative material.

    Gayley, C. M. Classic Myths in English Literature. Boston. 1893.

    Gibbins, H. de B. Industrial History of England. 1890.

    Gierke, O. Political Theories of the Middle Ages. Trans., Maitland, F. W. Cambridge, 1900.

    Gilds, English, their Statutes and Customs. 1389. Ed. Smith, T. and Smith, L. T. E.E.T.S. 1870. Contains an excellent introductory essay by Brentano, L.

    Green, Alice S. Town life in the Fifteenth Century. 2 vols. 1894.

    Gross, C. The Sources and Literature of English History… to about 1485. 1900.

    Hall, H. Court Life under the Plantagenets (Henry II). 1890.

    Hallam, H. Introduction to the literature of Europe in the 15th–17th centuries. 4 vols. 1837 ff.

    —— View of the State of Europe during the Middle Ages. 2 vols. 1818 ff.

    Henderson, E. F. Select Hist. Documents of the Middle Ages. 1892.

    Historic Towns. Ed. Freeman, E. A. and Hunt, W. Bristol (W. Hunt); Carlisle (M. Creighton); Colchester (E. L. Cutts); Exeter (E. A. Freeman); London (W. J. Loftie); Oxford (W. C. Boase); Winchester (G. W. Kitchin); York (J. Raine); etc.

    Hunt, W. and Poole, R. L. (edd.). Political History of England. 12 vols. In progress.

    Jenks, E. Law and Politics in the Middle Ages. 1898.

    Jusserand, J. J. English Wayfaring Life in the Middle Ages, XIVth cent.

    In Fr. 1884; trans. Smith, L. T., 1889 ff.

    Ker, W. P. Essays on Medieval Literature. 1905. (For Malory, Chaucer, Froissart, etc.)

    Lecky, W. E. H. Hist. of European Morals. 1869 ff.

    London. For Fitz-Stephen’s description of London in the Middle Ages, and for many other documents illustrative of medieval London manners and customs, see Riley, H. T., Munimenta Gildhallae Londoniensis, 3 vols., Rolls Series, 1859–62. Also Riley, H. T., Memorials of London in the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries, 1868; and the Calendar of Letter Books preserved among the Archives of the Corporation at the Guildhall, A. D. 1275–1399, ed. Sharpe, R. R., 1899 ff. London Lickpenny, whether it be Lydgate’s or not, and Occleve’s La Male Régle, are extremely valuable London “documents.” And Lydgate’s Jak Hare’s begging letter beginning “A froward knave plainly to descryve” (Reliquiae Antiquae, I, 13; Halliwell’s edition of Minor Poems, pp. 52–5)should be read with them.

    Madan, F. Books in Manuscript. 1893.

    Maitland, F. W. Records of the Parliament holden at Westminster, 1305. Rolls Series, 1893.

    —— Township and Borough. Cambridge, 1898.

    Maitland, S. R. The Dark Ages. 1844 ff.

    Maury, L. F. Alfred. Croyances et Lègendes du moyen âge. 1896.

    —— Lègendes pieuses du Moyen âge. Paris, 1843.

    Middle Ages. For general literary summaries see Jusserand, J. J., Hist. Lit. du Peuple Anglais, vol. 1, Deuxe ed. 1896, chap. VII La fin du moyen âge; Snell, F. J., The Fourteenth Century, 1899, last chapter; Smith, G. Gregory, The Transition Period, 1900 (see, for example, pp. 15–16); Lolièe, F., A Short History of Comparative Literature, Eng. trans., 1906; Taine, H. A., History of English Literature, Eng. trans., vol. 1.

    Middleton, J. H. Illuminated MSS. in Classical and Medieval Times. Oxford, 1892.

    Minstrels and Folk-songs. See Chambers, E. K., The Medieval Stage, 2 vols., Oxford, 1903, and the bibliography contained therein. CF. also the chapter on Town-verse and Folk-song in Snell, F. J., The Fourteenth Century, 1899; and the first chapter in Vol. IV of the present work.

    Pauli, R. Bilder aus Alteng. Gotha, 1860. Eng. trans., Ottè, E. C. 1861 ff.

    —— Gesch. der Europ. Staaten: England, vols. III–V (1154–1509). Gotha, 1855.

    Poets Laureate. For early poets laureate, see Warton, T., Hist. Eng. Poet., vol. II, sect. XXV (1840), pp. 330 ff.; and Dyce, A., in his ed. of Skelton. 2 vols, 1843, vol. 1, p. vii.

    Putnam, G. H. Books and their Makers during the Middle Ages. 2 vols. [(1) 476–1600; (2) 1500–1709.] New York. 1896–7.

    Raleigh, W. The English Novel. 1894.

    Ramsay, Sir J. H. The Foundations of England (to 1154). 2 vols. 1898.

    —— Lancaster and York, 1399–1485. 2 vols. Oxford, 1892.

    Reade, C. The Cloister and the Hearth. J. Nield’s Guide to the Best Historical Novels and Tales, 1902, should be consulted for similar works. Among the more important of these, to the end of the Middle Ages, may be mentioned Thorpe Forrest’s Builders of the Waste (a well-written novel based on the conflict of Britons and English in Yorkshire), Lytton’s Harold and Last of the Barons, Kingsley’s Hereward the Wake, Thomas Love Peacock’s Maid Marian, E. Rhys’s The Whistling Maid (Wales, temp. Edw. II), Maurice Hewlett’s New Canterbury Tales, G. P. R. James’s Agincourt, James Grant’s The Captain of the Guard, R. L. Stevenson’s The Black Arrow, Harold Frederic’s The Deserter (Wars of the Roses) and Mary Shelley’s Perkin Warbeck.

    Robert, A. C. M. Fables inèdites de XII–XIV siécles. 2 vols. 1825.

    Rogers, F. The Seven Deadly Sins. 1907.

    Rogers, J. E. Thorold. History of Agriculture and Prices in England. 1259–1793. 6 vols. Oxford. 1866–87. Vols. I and II, 1259–1400; III and IV, 1401–1582. Also his Six Centuries of Work and Wages, 1884 ff.

    Romances. See Vol. I, Chapters XIII and XIV and bibliographies. Also Vol. III for the romances printed in the 16th cent. For details of the old romances preserved in monastic libraries, and minstrels in monasteries, see Warton, sect. 11. He states that William of Wykeham gave a copy of Chronicon Trojae to Winchester College, c. 1387, and that in the Statutes of New College, c. 1380, it was provided that “scholars, for their recreation on festival days in the hall after dinner and supper,” were “to entertain themselves with songs … and to recite poems, chronicles of kingdoms, the wonders of the world,” etc.

    Shirley, W. W. Royal and other historical letters illustrative of the reign of Henry III. 2 vols. Rolls Series. 1862–6. Of great value.

    Smith, G. Gregory. Days of James IV. Scot. Hist. from contemporary writers. 1899.

    Steele, R. Medieval Lore: an Epitome of the Science, Geography, Animal and Plant Folk-Lore of the Middle Age. Pref. by Morris, W., 1893.

    —— (ed.). Kings’ letters: from the days of Alfred to the accession of the Tudors. King’s Classics. 1903.

    Stevenson, W. B. The Crusaders in the East. Cambridge, 1907.

    Strutt, J. The Sports and Pastimes of the People of England, 1801. Ed. Cox, J. C. 1903.

    Taylor, H. O. Classical Heritage of the Middle Ages. New York. 1901.

    Thompson, E. Wars of York and Lancaster. Eng. Hist. from Contemporary Writers Series. 1892.

    Wright, T. Womankind in Western Europe to the 17th cent. 1869.

    —— A History of Domestic Manners and Sentiments in England during the Middle Ages. 1862.

    —— Biographia Britannica Literaria. 2 vols. 1842. The Anglo-Saxon volume has been referred to elsewhere in these bibliographies. The Anglo-Norman volume gives details of Latin, as well as of English and French, writings, from Lanfranc to Layamon.

    —— Essays on subjects connected with the literature, popular superstitions and history of England in the Middle Ages. 2 vols. 1846. Contains interesting essays on “Anglo-Saxon,” Anglo-Latin and Anglo-Norman poetry, Chansons de Geste, Proverbs, Fairy Mythology, Friar Rush, Popular Stories, Hereward, Eustace the Monk, Fulke Fitz Warine, Robin Hood Ballads, the Conquest of Ireland by the Anglo-Normans, Political Songs, Dunbar, etc., etc.

    Old French writers and critical works thereon

    Books mentioned in the bibliographies of chapters VIII, XII, XIII, XIV, etc., Vol. I, should be consulted, especially Histoire Littèraire de la France; Petit de Julleville’s Histoire de la Langue et de la Littèrature française (for language, see vol. II, pp. 520 ff.), the works of Gaston Paris, G. Gröber’s Grundriss der roman. Philologie, Romania, the publications of the Sociètè des anciens textes français, etc. M. Edwardes’s Summary of the literature of modern Europe, 1907, gives useful references to MSS., etc.

    Adgar’s (or William the trouvére’s) Marien Legenden (12th cent.). Ed. Neuhaus, C. Heilbronn, 1886.

    Ambroise. Hist. de la Guerre Sainte. Ed. Paris, G. 1897. Cf. Itinerarium … regis Richardi. Ed. Stubbs, W. 2 vols. Rolls Series. 1864–5.

    Benoit’s St. Brendan. 1121. Ed. Michel, F. 1878. See Paris, G., La Litt. fr. au moyen âge, 1890, p. 283.

    Benoit, historiographer. For his history of the Norman dukes, see ed. Michel, F., Paris, 1836–44, and Langlois, Ch. V., in Petit de Julleville, vol. II, pp. 278–9.

    Bibelsworth, Walter de (fl. 1270). Author of a French poem on the crusades (Rel. Ant. I. 134) and other verses.

    Bozon, Nicole. Ed. Smith, L. T. and Meyer, P. S.A.T.F. Paris, 1889.

    Calendar, An Anglo-Norman. Chaytor, H. J., in Mod. Lang. Rev., April, 1907.

    Chardri, Barlaam and Josaphat. Ed. Koch, J. Heilbronn, 1879. (See Vol. I, p. 519).

    Didactic literature (French). See Piaget, A., in Petit de Julleville, vol. II, pp. 162 ff. and the bibliography on pp. 214 ff. (Peter of Peckham’s Lumiére aux Laïques, Petite Philosophie, Image du Monde, etc.). See also Jusserand’s Hist. Lit. Peupl. Ang. vol. I, pp. 126 ff., for works of a similar character and for such writings as Geoffrey of Waterford’s (13th cent.) translations and sermons, Angier of St. Frideswide’s translation of the Dialogues and Life of St. Gregory the Great, etc. (c. 1212–4).

    Eustache le Moigne, Roman d’, pirate fameux du XIII siécle. Ed. Michel, F. Paris, 1834, and ed. Förster, W. and Trost, J., Halle, 1891. See Wright, T., Essays on … the Literature … of England in the Middle Ages. Vol. II. 1846.

    Förster, W. Altfranz. Bibliothek. Heilbronn, 1879 ff. Roman. Bibliothek. Halle, 1888 ff.

    Gaimar, G. Anglo-Norman Metrical Chronicle of the Anglo-Saxon kings. Ed. Wright, T. Caxton Soc. 1850. L’estorie des Engles. Ed. Hardy, T. D. and Martin, E. T. Rolls Series. 1888–9. See Meyer, P., in Romania, XVIII, 314.

    Garnier de Pont Sainte Maxence. Vie de St. Thomas le Martyr (1173). Ed. Hippeau, C. 1859.

    Guillaume le Maréchal, L’Histoire de. Ed. Meyer, P. 3 vols. S.A.T.F. 1891 ff.

    Ireland, Norman French Metrical History on the conquest of. Ed. Michel, F. 1837. See Wright, T., Essays on … the Literature … of England in the Middle Ages, vol. II, 1846.

    Jean de Waurin. Croniques et anchiennes istories de la Grant Bret., a present nomme Engleterre [to 1471]. Ed. Hardy, W. and Hardy, E.L. C. P. Rolls Series. 1864–91. 5 vols. First 3 vols. also pub. in English by the same editors, Rolls Series, 1864–91.

    Jehan le Bel. See Vol. I, p. 530.

    Jordan Fantosme. Chronique de la Guerre entre les Anglois et les Escossois, 1173–4. Ed. Howlett, R., in Chron. Steph., Henry II and Richard I. Rolls Series. 1884 ff. Michel, F. Surtees Soc. 1840.

    La Marche, A. Lecoy de. La chaire fr. au moyen âge. 2nd ed. Paris, 1886.

    La Tour Landry, Geoffrey de. Ed. A. de Montaiglon, 1854. Wright, T. E.E.T.S. 1868; rev. ed. 1906. An abridged edition of Caxton’s version was published in 1902, ed. Rawlings, G. R.

    Livere de reis de Brittanie, le, et le livere de reis de Engleterre. Ed. Glover, J. Rolls Series. 1865.

    London. Chroniques de (14th cent.). Aungier, G. J. Camden Soc. 1844. Marie de France. See Vol. I, pp. 521, etc.

    Mèon, D. M. Fabliaux et contes des poétes fr. des XIe–XVe siécles (Barbazan’s); new ed. 4 vols. Paris, 1808. Nouveau recueil. 2 vols. Paris, 1823. See also other works on fabliaux in the bibliography to Vol. I, Chap. XVII of the present work.

    Michel, F. Chroniques anglo-normandes … XIe and XIIe siécles. 3 t. Rouen. 1836–40.

    Normandy, Narratives of the expulsion of the English from (1449–50). Ed. Stevenson, J. Rolls Series. 1863.

    Peter of Langtoft. See Vol. I, pp. 530, etc.

    Psalters, etc. Ed. Michel, F. Oxford, 1860; and Paris, 1876.

    Robert de Gretham, Greetham or Greetham (13th cent.). Compiler of religious works for the use of lay-folk. See Paris, G., Litt. du Moyen Âge, [char] 152; Meyer, P., Les MSS. Françde Cambridge, Romania, XXXII, 28.

    St. Auban, Vie de. Ed. Atkinson, R. 1876.

    Samson de Nanteuil. Version of Book of Proverbs. MS. Harl. 4388.

    Suchier, H. and Birch-Hirschfeld, A. Gesch, der franz. Lit. Leipzig, 1900.

    —— Reimpredigt. Halle, 1879.

    —— Bibliotheca Normannica. Halle, 1879 ff.

    Thaon, P. de. See Vol. I, p. 512.

    Twicè, Guillaume de. Art de Vènerie. Eng. trans. MS. Brit. Mus. Cott.

    Vesp. B. XII. See also ed. MS. Phillipps 8336, Middle Hill Press, 1840.

    Wace. See Vol. I, pp. 499, etc.

    William the Clerk. For the various works that have passed under the name of this Anglo-Norman thirteenth century poet see Le Roman des Aventures de Fregus, ed. Michel, F., Abbotsford Club, Edinburgh, 1841 (an Arthurian shepherd boy story); Mèon’s Fabliaux (see above); Le Bestiaire divin de G. clerc de Normandie, ed. Hippeau, Ch., Caen, 1852; Das Tierbuch des norman. Dichters G. le C., Reinsch, R., Leipzig, 1892; Le Besant de Dieu, ed. Martin, E., Halle, 1869 (“un des plus beaux poémes moraux que nous ait laissès le moyen âge,” Piaget, A., in Julleville, t. II, 182). The Priest and Alison tale would appear to be by another Norman William.