The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes (1907–21).
Volume II. The End of the Middle Ages.

II. Religious Movements in the Fourteenth Century




Explanationes super lectiones illas beati Job quae solent in exequiis defunctorum legi cum sermone beati Augustine de misericordia et pia oracione pro defunctis. 4to. Oxford, 1481–5. (Only three copies known, which were once all in the Cambridge Univ. Lib. Sayle, C., Early Eng. Bks in Univ. Lib., Cambridge, 1900 ff., No. 79. The same: Paris, c. 1510. See Mattaire, Annal. Typ, II. 93.).

The Abbaye of the Holy Ghost. Printed by W. de Worde about 1496. Facsimile, Camb. Univ. Press, 1907. This is part of the Charter of the Abbaye of the Holy Ghost with a long insertion from the Abbaye of the Holy Ghost, the latter being a work ascribed in one MS. to Hampole. See Horstman, I, 321 and 337. Sayle, No. 56. A later edition by W. de W. 1531; see Mattaire, Annal. Typ. v, Pt. I, p. 22.

Richard Rolle Hermit of Hampull in his contemplacyons of the drede and loue of God with dyuerse tytles as it sheweth in his table and The remedy against the troubles of temptacyons. Printed by Wynkyn de Worde. 1506 and 1508 respectively. Also reprinted by him c. 1509 and 1519 respectively. See Sayle, No. 241: also Brit. Mus. Cat. English Printed Books, p. 1317. The ”contemplacyons” are wrongly ascribed to Rolle: see Horstman, II, xlii n. and 73.

Speculum Spiritualium. Additur insuper et opusculum Ricardi Hampole de emendacione vitae. Paris, 1510. See Sayle, No. 6151.

D Richardi Pampolitani anglosaxonis eremitae, viri in diuinis scripturis ac veteri illa solidaque Theologia eruditissimi in psalterium Davidicum atque alia quaedam sacrae scripturae monumenta compendiosa juxtaque pia enarratio. Cologne. 1536.

English Prose Treatises of Richard Rolle de Hampole, edited from Robert Thornton’s MS., c. 1444 A.D., by Perry, George G. E.E.T.S. 1866.

Fire of Love and the Mending of Life, The, or the Rule of Living. The First English in 1435, from the De Incendio Amoris: the second in 1434 from the De Emendatione Vitae of Richard Rolle, by Richard Misyn… From MS. in Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Ed. Harvey, R. E.E.T.S. 1896.

Pricke of Conscience (Stimulus Conscientiae), The, a Northumbrian Poem by Richard Rolle of Hampole. Ed. from MSS. in Brit. Mus. by Morris, R. Phil. Soc. 1863.

Psalter, The, or Psalms of David and certain Canticles, with a Translation and Exposition in English, by Richard Rolle of Hampole. Ed. Bramley, H.R. Oxford, 1884. [Cf. the metrical Job, in the Harl. MS.]

Yorkshire Writers: Richard Rolle of Hampole—an English Father of the Church and his followers. Ed. Horstman, C. 2 vols. 1895–6. Contains most of the English prose and verse writings not in the two preceding works, along with other writings by various mystics of the School, and an ample introduction, bibliography and description of Latin works still in MS., but copied by Horstman for publication. Cf. Köbing, E., Engl. Stud. XXIV, pp. 275–9.

For full bibliography, see Horstman, II, XXXVI ff. [Very many “Hampole” MSS. are in the Cambridge University, Bodleian and British Museum Libraries.]


Adler, M. and Kaluza, M. Studien zu R.R. de H. E.S. x. 1887, p. 215.

Andreae, P. Die Handschriften des Pricke of Conscience von R.R. of H. im Brit. Mus. Berlin, 1888.

Bale, J. Scriptorum Illustrium maioris Britanniae Catalogus. Basel, 1559 (p. 431). See also Poole, below.

Breviarium Eboracense. Vol. II. Surtees Society: Vol. LXXV, for 1882. Appendix v. Officium de S. Ricardo de Hampole.

Bübring, K.D. Zu der Handschriften von R.R.’s “Pricke of Conscience,” in Englische Studien, XXIII, pp. 1–30. See also 25 MSS. of Pricke of Conscience in Trans. Phil. Soc. 1888–90, pp. 261 ff.

Bülbring, K.D. Ueber die Hs. Nr. 491 der Lambeth Bibliothek. Arch. vol.LXXXVI, pp. 383–392. 1891. This MS. contains the Pricke of Conscience.

Campbell, Killis. A neglected MS. of the P. of C. Mod. Lang. Notes, Baltimore, XX, 1905, p. 210.

Hulme, Wm. H. A Valuable Middle English MS. (which contains Rolle’s Rule of Living). Modern Philology, IV, No. I, P. 67. Chicago, July, 1906.

Köhler, R. Quellennachweise zu R.R. v. H.’s Gedicht. The P. of C. in Jahrbuch für Romanische und Englische Literatur. Vol. VI, pp. 196–212. Leipzig, 1865. The sources given are Innocent III De Contemptu Mundi, and De Purgatorio; Bartholomaeus Anglicus De proprietatibus rerum; Thos. Aquinas; and Honorius of Autun, Elucidarium.

Kribel G. Studien zu R.R. de Hampole E.S. VIII, 1885, p. 67. [Cf. also Hahn, Quellenuntersuchungen zu R. R.’s schriften, 1900.]

Mätzner, Ed. Altenglische Sprachproben. Berlin. 1867–9.

Middendorf, H. Studien über Richard Rolle von Hampole unter besonderen Berücksichtigung seiner Psalmen-Commentare. Magdeburg, 1888.

Nassyngton, Wm., from Nassington in Northamptonshire, was a proctor at York, and wrote in the northern dialect; he translated some Latin works such as one of Waldby’s, on the Trinity and Unity (cf. Horstman, II, 334), and also his Mirror of Life, the English of which was read in 1384 before the Vice-Chancellor and University of Cambridge for four days, and on the fifth day pronounced free from heresy (cf. Thornton Romances). Some of N.’s works in Perry, G. G., Religious Pieces in Prose and Verse, E.E.T.S. 1867 (revised 1889). Also some in Horstman, II, 274 f.

Oudin. Commentarius de Scriptoribus Ecclesiae Antiquis (Frankfort and Leipzig, 1722. 3 vols). (See III, 927).

Paues, A. C. A fourteenth century English Biblical Version. Cambridge, 1902. (Cf. also for Wyclif.) This edition was privately printed, and includes a historical introduction, which is omitted in the reprint of the text (1904), but will form the basis of a new work.“The English Bible in the 14th century.” Much light will be thrown by it upon problems yet unsolved.

Poole, R. L. and Bateson, Mary. Anecdota Oxoniensia. Index Britanniae Scriptorum I. Bale. Oxford, 1902. See pp. 348–351. Following the MS., Rolle is called by Bale Ricardus Remynton.

Saintsbury, G. A History of English Prosody. Vol. I. [For the prosody of the “Hampole” poems and especially the exceedingly interesting E.I.O. poem.]

Simmons, T. F. The Lay Folks’ Mass Book. E.E.T.S. 1879.

Simmons, T. F. and Nolloch, H. E. The Lay Folks’ Catechism. E.E.T.S. 1901.

Tanner, T. Bibliotheca Britannico-Hibernica, p. 374. Ed. Wilkins, D. 1748.

Thornton Romances. Ed. Halliwell, J. O. Camden Society. 1844.

Ullmann, J. Studien zu R. R. de Hampole. E. S. VII, 1884, p. 415.

Zupitza, Julius. Zur meditacio Ric. Heremite de Hampole de Passione Domini (verbal emendations to Ullmann’s article). E.S. XII, p. 463.


For bibliography, see A Catalogue of the Original Works of John Wyclif, by Shirley, W. W., Oxford, 1865. See also Notes and Queries, 6th series, XI, 1885; Appendix to Lechler’s Life of W., English edition, pp. 480 ff.; and Arnold, as below, III, XV–XVI and, for English Works, xvii–xx.

Joannis Wyclif. Trialogus cum Supplemento Trialogi. Gotthardus Lechler. Oxford, 1869.

Johannis Wiclevi Trialogus. 4to. 1525 (Basel?). Frankfort and Leipzig (published as Dialogorum Libri quattuor).

Wyclif’s Latin Works, published by the Wyclif Society. 1882–. Among the most important are: De Ecclesia, ed. Loserth, Johann; De Dominio Divino, ed. Poole, R. L.; De Civili Dominio, vol. I, ed. Poole, R. L., the other three by Loserth, J.; De Veritate Sacrae Scripturae, 3 vols., ed. Buddensieg, R.; Polemical works, 2 vols., ed. Buddensieg, R.

Wyclif’s Wicket, which he made in King Richard’s days the Second. Nuremberg, 1546. Reprinted often later. Probably not Wyclif’s.

Select English Works of John Wyclif. 3 vols. Ed. Arnold, T. Oxford, 1869–71.

English Works of Wyclif hitherto unprinted. Ed. Matthew, F. D. E.E.T.S. 1880. [Contains an important introduction.]


The Wycliffite Versions of the Holy Bible. Ed. Forshall, J. and Madden, F. 4 vols., impl. 4to. Oxford, 1850. (Contains both versions: the earlier based on 4 MSS., 19 being collated, and 8 used in part: the later based on I MS., 34 collated and 13 used in part. The work contains much information, but is often inaccurate, and needs revision owing to its being compiled without sufficient preparation.)

The New Testament. From a MS. formerly in possession of Lea Wilson. 4to. Pickering. 1848. This is the earlier version.

The New Testament, translated out of the Latin Vulgat by John Wyclif about 1378. Ed. Lewis. J. Fol. 1731. This is the later version, not the one known as Wyclif’s.

See short bibliography in Fasc. Ziz. pp. 529 f. The Text in the English Hexapla, 1841, closely resembles that of Lewis.

The New Testament in English according to the version by John Wycliffe about A.D. 1380, and revised by John Purvey about A.D. 1388. Formerly edited by Forshall and Madden, and reprinted. Oxford, 1879.

The New Testament in Scots, being Purvey’s Revision of Wycliffe’s Version turned into Scots by Murdoch Nisbet, c. 1520. Ed. from the unique MS. in the possession of Lord Amherst of Hackney, by Law, T. G. Scottish Text Society. 3 vols. 1901–5. Owing to Law’s death, the notes in vols. II and III are by Joseph Hall, who is also responsible for the text of all three volumes.

The Books of Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Solomon, according to Wycliffite Version made by Nicholas de Hereford about A.D. 1381, and revised by John Purvey about A.D. 1388. Formerly edited by Forshall and Madden, and reprinted,. Oxford, 1881.

Gasquet, Dom F. A. The Old English Bible and other Essays. 1897. See also Church Quarterly Review, Oct. 1900, and Jan. 1901.

Matthew, F. D. The authorship of the Wycliffite Bible. Eng. Hist. Rev. vol. x, p. 91.

Ortmann, Franz J. Formen und Syntax des Verbes bei Wycliffe und Purvey. Berlin, 1902. With linguistic bibliography.

Skeat, W. W. On the Dialect of Wyclif’s Bible. Philolog. Soc. Trans. 1895–8, pp. 212 f. The result reached after much well founded criticism of the arrangement of MSS. in Forshall and Madden is that most of the MSS. are midland and resemble each other so much as to suggest a school of scribes: the resemblance to dialectal forms in Pecock (see Wager) suggests Oxford as their home. The MS. which has “Nicholay de Herford” written on it has western forms. On these points fresh light may be expected from Miss Paues’s coming work.


Bale, John. Scriptorum illustrium majoris Britanniae Catalogus. Basel, 1559. For Wyclif, see p. 450. See also Poole and Bateson under Hampole.

—— A brefe chronicle concernynge the examynacyon and death of the blessed martyr of Christ, Sir John Oldcastle, lord Cobham. 1548. Reprinted: 1729 (and other editions). See Brit. Mus. Cat. Early English Books, I, p. 93; also Sayle, No. 1038.

Bigg, C. H. Wayside Sketches in Eccles. Hist. (Lect.v). 1906

Buddensieg, R. Johann Wiclif und seine Zeit. Gotha, 1885.

Cannon, H. L. Ann. Report Amer. Hist. Ass. 1899. Vol. I, pp. 451–482. [On “poor priests,” contains bibliography.]

Capes, W. W. The English Church in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. 1900.

Capgrave’s Chronicle of England. Ed. Hingeston, F. C. Rolls Series. 1858.

Chronicon Angliae (St Albans). Ed. Thompson, E. M. Rolls Series. 1874. [Anti-Lancastrian.]

Cronin, H. S. The Twelve Conclusions of the Lollards. Eng. Hist. Rev., April, 1907, pp. 292–304. From Roger Dymok’s MS., Against the XII Conclusions of the Lollards, in the library of Trinity Hall, Cambridge.

Dymok, Roger (fl. 1390), author of Opus distinctum Libris XII adversus XII haereses Lollardorum, which will shortly be printed by H. S. Cronin, Trinity Hall, Cambridge, for the Wyclif Soc.

Foxe, John. Acts and Monuments. Ed. Townsend, G. and Cattley, S. R. 8 vols. 1841. Vols. II and III contain much upon Wyclif and the Lollards.

Forshall, J. and Madden, F. Glossary to Wycliffite versions of the Bible. Oxford, 1850.

Gairdner, Jas. and Spedding, Jas. Studies in English History. Edinburgh, 1881. (I, On early Lollards; II, On later Lollards and Pecock; III, On Falstaff and Oldcastle.)

Gollancz, Israel. The Quatrefoil of Love in An English Miscellany: presented to F. J. Furnivall. Oxford, 1907. Cf. also The Parlement of Thre Ages, ed. Gollancz, I., Roxburghe Club, 1897.

Higden, R. Polychronicon. Rolls Series. Babington and Lumby. 9 vols. 1865–86.

James, T. (ed.) Two short treatises against the Begging Friars. Oxford, 1608.

Knighton, H. Chronicon. Rolls Series. Ed. Lumby. 2 vols. 1889–95. [Lancastrian.]

Lechler, G. Joann von Wiclif und die Vorgeschichte der Reformation. 2 Bde. Leipzig, 1873. Trans. by Lorimer as: John Wycliffe and his English Precursors. 1884. [The most authoritative work.]

Lewis, J. Life and Sufferings of … Wiclif. 1720 and Oxford, 1820.

Littlehales, H. Lay Folks’ Prayer Book. c. 1420. E.E.T.S. CV and CIX.

—— Pages in facsimile from a Layman’s Prayer Book in English about A.D. 1400. 1890.

—— English Fragment from Latin medieval service Books. 1903.

—— The Prymer or Prayer Book of the Lay People in the Middle Ages in English. Ed. with notes etc. from MS. in St. John’s College, Cambridge. 1891.

Loserth, J. Wyclif’s activity in ecclesiastical politics. Eng. Hist. Rev. vol. XI, p. 319.

—— Neue Erscheinungen der Wiclif–Literature. J. L. in Historische Zeitschrift. 1905. Bd. 95, pp. 271–7.

—— Hus und Wyclif. Prag. 1884. Trans. by Evans, M. J. 1884. The best account of the indebtedness of Hus to Wyclif.

—— Studien zur Kirchenpolitik Englands im 14 Jahrhundert. 2 Thle. Vienna, 1897 and 1907. (Sitzungsberichte der k. Acad. der Wiss. in Wien.)

Matthew, F. D. (ed.). Trial of Wyche. Eng. Hist. Rev. vol. v, pp. 530–544.

—— The Date of Wyclif’s attack upon Transubstantiation. Eng. Hist. Rev. vol. v, p. 328.

Mombert, J.I. English Versions of the Bible. A Hand-book with copious examples illustrating the ancestry and relationship of the several versions, and comparative tables. Enlarged edition. London, 1907.

Morley, H. English Writers. Vol. v. 1890.

Netter. See Walden.

Pecock, R. The Repressor of over-much blaming of the Clergy. Ed. Babington, C. 2 vols. Rolls Series. 1860.

Pollard, A. W. Fifteenth Century Prose and Verse. 1903. [In An English Garner. Contains Examinations of William Thorpe and Sir John Oldcastle.]

Poole, R. L. Wycliffe and Movements for Reform. 1889.

—— Illustrations of the History of Medieval Thought in the departments of Theology and Ecclesiastical Politics. 1884. Chapter X, on Wyclif’s Doctrine of Lordship, is to be read along with the introductions to Wyclif’s two treatises on Dominion.

Purvey. The General Prologue to the Bible. Printed under the title of the Dore of Holy Scripture, by John Gough. 1536.

—— The True Copy of a Prolog written about two C yeres past. Crowley, Robert. 1550. Sayle, No. 1093. The running title is The Pathway to perfect knowledge. The same work as the above. For Luther’s edition of Purvey on the Apocalypse (Bale, 542) see Wylie, below, III, 312 n.

—— Remonstrance against Romish corruptions in the Church. Ed. Forshall, J. 1851.

Radcliffe, Nicholas. Was present at the Earthquake Council, and also argued with Aston: he was a partner with the Carmelite Peter Stokes in writing Viaticum salubre animae immortalis.

Ramsay, Sir J. H. Lancaster and York. A century of English history. A.D. 1399–1485. 2 vols. Oxford, 1892.

Rashdall, H. R. History of the Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages. Vol. III. Oxford, 1895. [See also his article on Wyclif in the D. of N. B.]

Repington, Philip: an Oxford follower of Wyclif, who recanted, and afterwards became Bp of Lincoln and cardinal. See Fasc. Ziz., Lechler and Wylie, III, 349.

Shirley, W. W. (ed.). Fasciculi Zizaniorum Magistri Johannis Wyclif cum Tritico: ascribed to Thomas Netter of Walden. Rolls Series. 1858. [An invaluable work.]

Strode, Ralph. Wyclif claims to have known him “in the schools,” and his Responsiones ad Radolphum Strodum remain in MS. in the Imperial Library at Vienna: they will be published by the Wyclif Society probably in 1911. For Strode, see Bale, ed. Poole and Bateson, pp. 334–5.

Stubbs, W. Constiutional History, chapters XVI and XIX.

Tanner, T. Bibliotheca Brit. Hib. (for Walden, Wyclif (Wiclevus), John Waldby, Repington and Purvey).

Ten Brink, B. Hist. Eng. Lit. (Eng. trans.). 1901. Vol. II, pp. 23–24, for the peasants’ rising.

Thompson, E. M. Wycliffe Exhibition. 1884.

Todd, J. H. (ed.). Last Age of the Church. Dublin, 1840.

—— An Apology for Lollard Doctrines (attributed to Wyclif). Camden Soc. 1842. The range of reading is exactly that of Purvey’s Remonstrance and his Prologue to the Bible.

—— Three Treatises by John Wycklyffe. Dublin, 1851.

Trevelyan, G. M. England in the Age of Wycliffe. 1899. 3rd edition, 1900.

Twemlow, Jesse A. Wycliffe’s preferments and university degrees. Eng. Hist. Rev. vol. XV, p. 529.

Wager, C. H. A. Pecock’s Repressor and the Wyclif Bible (correcting Babington’s statement that Pecock quotes the Wyclifite Version), in M.L.N. Baltimore, IX, 1894, pp. 193–197.

Waldby, Robert, archbishop of York, 1397 (sometimes confused with his brother John), was educated at Toulouse, present at the Earthquake Council, and wrote Contra Wiclevistas. (See Raine, J., Historians of the Church of York and its archbishops, Rolls Series, 3 vols., 1879–94; and D. of N.B.)

Waldby, John, brother of above, author of Speculum Vitae (Mirror of Life) and Latin works.

Walden, Thomas de (Netter). Netter, called Walden from his birthplace, Saffron Walden. One of the leading theological writers of the day, and active in England against the Lollards. See Fasc. Ziz. LXX-LXXII.

—— Opera. Doctrinale antiquitatum (contra Wiclevistas). 3 vols. Venice, 1571. Also, Paris, 1521–32.

Walsingham. Thomas of Walsingham’s Historia Anglicana (St. Albans). 2 vols. Rolls Series. 1863–4.

Wodeford, William. Contra Trialogum Wiclevi. Printed in Fascculus Rerum Expetendarum et Fugiendarum prout ab Orthuino Gratio, Presbytero Daventriensi, editus est Coloniae, A.D. MDXXIV. Opera et studio Edwardi Brown. Londoni, MDCXCL, vol. I. pp. 190–295.

Workman, H. B. The Dawn of the Reformation. The Age of Wyclif. 1901.

—— The Dawn of the Reformation. The Age of Hus. 1902.

Wright, T. (ed.). Political Poems and Songs relating to English History. Rolls Series. 2 vols. 1859–61. Especially John of Bridlington, I, 123–215, a political tract from end of Edward III’s reign; Against the Lollards, I, 231–249: connects Wyclif with Peasants’ Revolt; On Earthquake Council (1382), I, 253–263; Songs against the Friars, I, 263–270; for CAIM see p. 266: this is a mixture of English and Latin; The Plowman’s Tale, I, 304–346 (see chapter I of the present vol., and bibliography thereto); Jacke Upland, II, 16–39: a Lollard attack on the Friars with the Reply of Friar Daw Topias, and a rejoinder by Jack Upland, II, 39–114; Against the Lollards (especially Oldcastle). II, 243–7; Against the Friars, II, 249, 250.

Wylie, J. H. History of England under Henry IV. Vols. I–IV. 1884–98.