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Sir John Mandeville. Marvellous Adventures. 1895.

Chapter XXX

Of the Hills of Gold that Pismires keep. And of the 4 Rivers that come from Terrestrial Paradise

TOWARD the East Part of Prester John’s Land is an Isle good and great, that Men call Taprobane, that is full noble and full fruitful. And the King thereof is full rich, and is under the Obeissance of Prester John. And always there they make their King by Election. In that Isle be 2 Summers and 2 Winters, and Men harvest the Corn twice a Year. And in all the Seasons of the Year be the Gardens in Blossom. There dwell good Folk and reasonable, and many Christian Men amongst them, that be so rich that they wit not what to do with their Goods. Of old Time, when Men passed from the Land of Prester John unto that Isle, Men made Disposition to pass by Ships, 23 Days, or more; but now Men pass by Ship in 7 Days. And Men may see the Bottom of the Sea in many Places, for it is not full deep.

Beside that Isle, toward the East, be 2 other Isles. And Men call the one Orille, and the other Argyte, of the which all the Land is a Mine of Gold and Silver. And those Isles be right where that the Red Sea departeth from the Sea Ocean. And in those Isles Men see there no Stars so clearly as in other Places. For there appear no Stars, but only one clear Star that Men call Canapos. And there is the Moon not seen in all the Lunation, save only in the second Quarter.

In the Isle also of this Taprobane be great Hills of Gold, that Pismires keep full diligently. And they refine the purified Gold, and cast away the un-purified. And these Pismires be as great as Hounds. So that no Man dare come to those Hills, for the Pismires would assail them and devour them anon. So that no Man may get of that Gold, but by great Sleight. And when it is great Heat, the Pismires rest them in the Earth, from Prime of the Day unto Noon. And then the Folk of the Country take Camels, Dromedaries, and Horses and other Beasts, and go thither, and charge them in all Haste that they may; and after that, they flee away in all Haste that the Beasts may go, ere the Pismires come out of the Earth. And in other times, when it is not so hot, and that the Pismires rest them not in the Earth, then they get Gold by this Subtlety. They take Mares that have young Colts or Foals, and lay upon the Mares empty Vessels made there for; and they be all open above, and hanging low to the Earth. And then they send forth those Mares to pasture about those Hills, and with-hold the Foals with them at Home. And when the Pismires see those Vessels, they leap in anon: and they have this Nature that they let nothing be empty among them, but anon they fill it, be it what manner of Thing that it be; and so they fill those Vessels with Gold. And when that Folk suppose that the Vessels be full, they put forth anon the young Foals, and make them to neigh after their Dams. And then anon the Mares return towards their Foals with their Charges of Gold. And then Men uncharge them, and get Gold enough by this subtlety. For the Pismires will suffer Beasts to go and pasture amongst them, but no Man in no wise.

And beyond the Land and the Isles and the Deserts of Prester John’s Lordship, in going straight toward the East, Men find nothing but Mountains and Rocks, full great. And there is the dark Region, where no Man may see, neither by Day nor by Night, as they of the Country say. And that Desert and that Place of Darkness endure from this Side unto Terrestrial Paradise, where that Adam, our first Father, and Eve were put, that dwelled there but little while: and that is towards the East at the Beginning of the Earth. But that is not that East that we call our East, on this Side, where the Sun riseth to us. For when the Sun is East in those Parts towards Terrestrial Paradise, it is then Midnight in our Parts of this Side, for the Roundness of the Earth, of the which I have told you before. For our Lord God made the Earth all round in the mid Place of the Firmament. And there be Mountains and Hills and Valleys that be only from Noah’s Flood, that wasted the soft Ground and the tender, that fell down into Valleys, and the hard Earth and the Rocks abode as Mountains, when the soft Earth and tender waxed soft through Water, and fell and became Valleys.

Of Paradise cannot I speak properly. For I was not there. It is far beyond. And that grieveth me. And also I was not worthy. But as I have heard say of wise Men beyond, I shall tell you with good Will.

Terrestrial Paradise, as wise Men say, is the highest Place of Earth, that is in all the World. And it is so high that it toucheth nigh to the Circle of the Moon, there where the Moon maketh her Turn; for she is so high that there might not come to her the Flood of Noah, that covered all the Earth of the World all about and above and beneath, save only Paradise alone. And this Paradise is enclosed all about with a Wall, and Men wit not whereof it is; for the Walls be covered all over with Moss, as it seemeth. And it seemeth not that the Wall is Stone of Nature. And that Wall stretcheth from the South to the North, and it hath but one Entry that is closed with Fire, burning; so that no Man that is mortal dare enter.

And in the most high Place of Paradise, evenly in the middle Place, is a Well that casteth out the 4 Rivers that run by divers Lands. Of the which, the first is clept Pison, or Ganges, that are one and the same; and it runneth throughout Ind or Emlak, in the which River be many precious Stones, and much of Lignum Aloes and much Gravel of Gold. And that other River is clept Nile, or Gison, that goeth by Ethiopia and after by Egypt. And that other is clept Tigris, that runneth by Assyria and by Armenia the Great. And that other is clept Euphrates, that runneth also by Media and Armenia and by Persia. And Men there beyond say, that all the sweet Waters of the World, above and beneath, take their Beginning from the Well of Paradise, and out of that Well all Waters come and go.

The first River is clept Pison, that is to say in their Language, Assembly; for many other Rivers meet there, and go into that River. And some Men call it Ganges, from a King that was in Ind, that was hight Gangeres, and as it ran throughout his Land. And that Water is in some Places clear, and in some Places troubled, in some Places hot, and in some Places cool.

The second River is clept Nile, or Gison; for it is always troubled; and Gison, in the Language of Ethiopia, is to say, Troubled, and in the Language of Egypt also.

The third River, that is clept Tigris, is as much as to say as, Fast-running; for he runneth more fast than any of the tother; and also there is a Beast, that is clept Tiger, that is fast-running.

The fourth River is clept Euphrates, that is to say, Well-bearing; for there grow many Goods upon that River, as Corns, Fruits and other Goods plenty enough.

And ye shall understand that no Man that is mortal may approach to that Paradise. For by Land no Man may go for wild Beasts that be in the Deserts, and for the high Mountains and great huge Rocks that no Man may pass by, for the dark Places that be there, and that many. And by the Rivers may no Man go. For the Water runneth so rudely and so sharply, because that it cometh down so outrageously from the high Places above, that it runneth in Waves so great, that no Ship may row or sail against it. And the Water roareth so, and maketh so huge Noise and so great Tempest, that no Man may hear another in the Ship, though he cried with all the Strength that he could in the highest Voice that he might. Many great Lords have assayed with great Will, many Times, to pass by those Rivers towards Paradise, with full great Companies. But they might not speed in their Voyage. And many died for Weariness of rowing against those strong Waves. And many of them became blind, and many deaf, for the Noise of the Water. And some were perished and lost within the Waves. So that no mortal Man may approach to that Place, without special Grace of God, so that of that Place I can say you no more; and therefore, I shall hold me still, and return to that, that I have seen.