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Sir John Mandeville. Marvellous Adventures. 1895.

Chapter II

Of the Cross and the Crown of our Lord Jesu Christ

AT Constantinople is the Cross of our Lord Jesu Christ, and His Coat without Seams, that is clept Tunica inconsutilis, and the Sponge, and the Reed, with which the Jews gave our Lord Vinegar and Gall, on the Cross. And there is one of the Nails, that Christ was nailed with on the Cross.

And some Men trow that half the Cross, that Christ was put on, is in Cyprus, in an Abbey of Monks, that Men call the Hill of the Holy Cross; but it is not so. For that Cross that is in Cyprus, is the Cross, on the which Dismas the good Thief was hanged. But all Men know not that; and that is evilly done, that for Profit of the Offerings, they say that it is the Cross of our Lord Jesu Christ.

And ye shall understand that the Cross of our Lord was made of four Manner of Trees, as it is contained in this Verse,—

“In Cruce fit Palma, Cedrus, Cypressus, Oliva.” For that Piece that went upright from the Earth to the Head was of Cypress; and the Piece that went overthwart, to the which His Hands were nailed, was of Palm; and the Stock, that stood within the Earth, in the which was made the Mortise, was of Cedar; and the Tablet above His Head, that was a Foot and a half long, on the which the Title was written in Hebrew, Greek and Latin, that was of Olive.

And the Jews made the Cross of these four Manner of Trees; for they thought that our Lord Jesu Christ should have hanged on the Cross, as long as the Cross might last. And therefore made they the Foot of the Cross of Cedar; for Cedar may not rot in Earth nor Water, and therefore they would that it should have lasted long. For they trowed that the Body of Christ should have stunken; therefore they made that Piece, that went from the Earth upwards of Cypress, for it is well-smelling, so that the Smell of His Body should not grieve Men that went thereby. And the overthwart Piece was of Palm, for in the Old Testament it was ordained, that when one overcame he should be crowned with Palm; for they trowed that they had the Victory of Christ Jesus, therefore made they the overthwart Piece of Palm. And the Tablet of the Title they made of Olive; for Olive betokeneth Peace. And the Story of Noah witnesseth that when the Culver brought the Branch of Olive, that betokened Peace made between God and Man. And so trowed the Jews to have Peace, when Christ was dead; for they said that He made Discord and Strife amongst them. And ye shall understand that our Lord was a-nailed on the Cross lying, and therefore He suffered the more Pain.

And the Christian Men, that dwell beyond the Sea, in Greece, say that the Tree of the Cross, that we call Cypress, was of that Tree that Adam ate the Apple off; and that find they written. And they say also, that their Scripture saith, that Adam was sick, and said to his Son Seth, that he should go to the Angel that kept Paradise, that he would send him Oil of Mercy, to anoint his Members, that he might have Health. And Seth went. But the Angel would not let him come in; but said to him, that he might not have of the Oil of Mercy. But he took him 3 Grains of the same Tree, that his Father ate the Apple off; and bade him, as soon as his Father was dead, that he should put these 3 Grains under his Tongue, and bury him so; and he did. And of these 3 Grains sprang a Tree, as the Angel said that it should, and bare a Fruit, through the which Fruit Adam should be saved. And when Seth came again, he found his Father near dead. And when he was dead, he did with the Grains as the Angel bade him; of the which sprung 3 Trees, of the which the Cross was made, that bare good Fruit and blessed, our Lord Jesu Christ; through whom, Adam and all that come of him, should be saved and delivered from Dread of Death without End, but it be by their own Default.

This Holy Cross had the Jews hid in the Earth, under a Rock of the Mount of Calvary; and it lay there 200 Year and more, into the Time of St. Helen, that was Mother to Constantine the Emperor of Rome. And she was Daughter of King Coel, born in Colchester, that was King of England, that was clept then Britain the More; the which the Emperor Constantinus wedded as his Wife, for her Beauty, and begat by her Constantine, that was after Emperor of Rome.

And ye shall understand, that the Cross of our Lord was 8 Cubits long, and the overthwart Piece was of Length 8 Cubits and a half. And one Part of the Crown of our Lord, wherewith He was crowned, and one of the Nails, and the Spear Head, and many other Relics be in France, in the King’s Chapel. And the Crown lieth in a Vessel of Crystal richly dight. For a King of France bought these Relics some time of the Jews, to whom the Emperor had laid them in Pledge for a great Sum of Silver.

And if it be so, as Men say, that this Crown is of Thorns, ye shall understand, that it was of Jonkes of the Sea, that is to say, Rushes of the Sea, that prick as sharply as Thorns. For I have seen and beholden many times that of Paris and that of Constantinople; for they were both one, made of Rushes of the Sea. But Men have parted them in 2 Parts: of the which, one Part is at Paris, and the other Part is at Constantinople. And I have one of those precious Thorns, that seemeth like a white Thorn; and that was given to me for a great Rarity. For there are many of them broken and fallen into the Vessel that the Crown lieth in; for they break for Dryness when Men move them to shew them to great Lords that come thither.

And ye shall understand, that our Lord Jesu, in that Night that He was taken, was led into a Garden; and there He was first examined right sharply; and there the Jews scorned Him, and made Him a Crown of the Branches of Albespine, that is White Thorn, that grew in that same Garden, and set it on His Head, so fast and so sore, that the Blood ran down by many Places of His Visage, and of His Neck, and of His Shoulders. And therefore hath White Thorn many Virtues, for he that beareth a Branch thereof on him, no Thunder nor no manner of Tempest may hurt him; nor in the House, that it is in, may no evil Ghost enter nor come unto the Place that it is in. And in that same Garden, Saint Peter denied our Lord thrice.

Afterward was our Lord led forth before the Bishops and the Masters of the Law, into another Garden of Annas; and there also He was examined, reproved, and scorned, and crowned again with a White Thorn, that men call Barbarines, that grew in that Garden, and that hath also many Virtues.

And afterward He was led into a Garden of Caiphas, and there He was crowned with Eglantine.

And after He was led into the Chamber of Pilate, and there He was examined and crowned. And the Jews set Him in a Chair, and clad Him in a Mantle; and there made they the Crown of Jonkes (or Rushes) of the Sea; and there they kneeled to Him, and scorned Him, saying, “Ave, Rex Judeorum!” that is to say, “Hail, King of the Jews!” And of this Crown, half is at Paris, and the other half at Constantinople. And this Crown had Christ on His Head, when He was put upon the Cross; and therefore ought Men to worship it and hold it more worthy than any of the others.

And the Spear Shaft hath the Emperor of Almayne; but the Head is at Paris. And nevertheless the Emperor of Constantinople saith that he hath the Spear Head; and I have often time seen it, but it is greater than that at Paris.